BIBLIOGRAPHY MEDICAL — the industry of scientific and practical activities, the main objective a cut is purposeful transfer to readers of information on works of the medical press: identification, description, disclosure of maintenance, critical evaluation and recommendation of book and periodic literature.
The main directions B. of m are: preparation of information on works of the press; bibliographic and information service of readers; help and bibliographic work.
Information on works of the press can be given in the form of the bibliographic description (the information about the author, the name of work, the place of the publication); the description can be added with the summary or the paper.
Main types of the bibliography are various information publications containing data on new literature, thematic indexes and reviews.
By the chronological principle bibliographic grants are subdivided into two main types: current and retrospective (the containing data on literature for last years); the first are published by the most part in the form of the bibliographic periodical press or on cards, the second — in the form of books.
History. B. m arose at the beginning of 16 century, with development of medical literature, and to 19 century was formed individuals. (S. Cha-mpier, 1472 — 1539), Gössner (G. Ges-пег, 1516 — 1565), van-der-Linden (J. A. van der Linden, 1609 — 1664), G. Burkhava were large figures of B. of m Shampye. At the end of 18 century A. Galler began to make lists not only books, but also articles of medical contents. The successor of his work Kallisen (A. G. Callisen, 1786 — 1866) published in 1830 — 1845 the capital work «Medi-zinisches Schriftsteller Lexicon der jetzt lebenden Aerzte» in 33 volumes. In 19 century B. of m began to be formed big collectives. Especially big distribution was gained by abstract and survey editions on medicine. The largest were «Schmidt's Jahrbucher der in-und auslandischen Medizin» (1834 — 1922), «Jahresberichte uber die Leistungen und Fortschritten in der gesamten Medizin» (1841 — 1916).
B. m in Russia received reflection in the edition of the Kiev society of scientists: «Index of the Russian literature on mathematics, pure and applied natural sciences» (1872 — 1891; 1899 — 1906), «The bibliographic index of the Russian medical literature» (1890 — 1896), «The Russian bibliography on natural sciences and mathematics» (1901 — 1913), «Year-book of the Russian medical press» (1911 — 1912). Besides, in the Medical Review (1877 — 1905) magazine there was a bibliographic department. Bibliographic works of remarkable doctors-bibliographers of L. F. Zmeev, D. N. Zhbankova, etc. are of great historical value.
In 19 — 20 centuries in connection with further development and differentiation of medicine also B. of m on separate problems and sections of medicine appeared.
B.'s development by m was promoted by creation of the international organizations and corporations in this area. So, in 1946 at UNESCO the coordinating committee on summarizing and bibliographic registration of literature in the field of medicine and biology was organized. In 1947 in Holland the international bibliographic corporation Excerpta medica was created, edges along with the abstract magazine of the same name publishes reports of the international congresses, the bibliography on pharmacology, etc.
Thanks to scientific and technical progress, bystry blossoming of all fields of science, including and medical, the number of scientific printed materials sharply increased. Rough rates of development of science cause the necessity of obtaining the most bystry information on scientific literature. At modern increase in researches an important task is bystry implementation in practice of results of discoveries, and also an exception of a possibility of duplication of scientific research. Timely receiving the relevant information allows to solve these problems.
More and more increasing specialization of science, and in particular in medicine, creates a gap between various special areas which becomes more difficult to be overcome. In this regard the problem of scientific bonds is put in the forefront. And this problem timely information shall play the leading role in the decision.
In the USSR B.'s development by m is promoted by wide network of medical libraries led by the State Central Scientific and Medical Library (SCSML), and in the last decade — bodies of scientific medical information. Information on medical literature is published by also All-Union book chamber which is body of the state bibliographic registration of works of the press («The book chronicle», «The chronicle of journal articles», «A printing card»), All-Union institute of scientific and technical information (the abstract magazine «Biologiya», separate issues of the abstract magazine).
In the USSR B. the m is an essential part of uniform system of scientific medical information. Divisions of this system are: The all-Union research institute of medical and medico-technical information (VNIIMI), republican bodies of information, bodies of information at research medical institutes, in higher educational institutions, in to lay down. - professional, institutions.
Medical libraries are included into uniform system of scientific medical information, being in most cases in structure of bodies of information or in their subordination (see Libraries, medical).
The bibliography of the current medical literature
has the Greatest value in a crust, time bibliographic and other types of information about the current medical literature.
Its numerous sources can be subdivided into the following basic groups: the advanced information setting the task of the most bystry (century terms up to one month) notifications of specialists; bibliographic, abstract, survey and published in the form of the bibliographic periodical press (magazines, bulletins), and also in the form of the printing cards containing bibliographic data on the work: press, and sometimes summary or paper.
Sources of the current information on the books going on sale are the Knizhnoye Obozreniye» (1966) newspapers and «The book chronicle» (1907) which are issued weekly. These editions are most operational. The indexes «New books» which are published GTsNMB (since 1972 leaves monthly) and «Literature for the practical doctor» (since 1959 there are 6 times a year) have information value.
Data on foreign books are published in the following editions appearing monthly: «New books abroad» it is gray. Century (1957); «Summary catalog of foreign literature. Natural sciences. Equipment. Agriculture. Medicine». 4.1. Alphabetical catalog. P. 2. Systematic catalog (1969). Since 1973 the separate release of the summary Medicine catalog is published. Similar data were provided also in «The summary bulletin of the new foreign books which came to the largest libraries of the USSR» (sulfurs. And.; 1949); there were 6 times a year. In each release was registered in section «Medicine» 600 — 700 of books with transfer of the title (since 1974 it is not published).
From the foreign sources supplying the information on book products of various countries of the world, the basic is the catalog of the current receipts in National medical library of the USA — «National Library of medicine Current catalog» (1966). It is published in the form of monthly, quarterly and summary annual releases. In each of them material is located alphabetically authors or titles, and also on subject headings.
The main source of the current information on journal articles is the «Chronicle of journal articles» (1926) published weekly.
Within a year in the section XXII — Health care, Medical sciences — the information approximately about 35 thousand articles published in magazines on medical subject and bordering limits in works and collections is supplied. To «Chronicle» auxiliary indexes are published.
All materials published in «Chronicles» are published also in the form of printing cards: «Health care. Medical sciences». Series 40. Data on articles published in a foreign press can be received from the following sources.
1. A bibliographic card file (Meditsina abroad), M., 1963, the published VNIIMI.
The card file gives information on articles published in 2000 foreign medical magazines (GTsNMB fund), its volume apprx. 100 000 cards a year.
Materials are systematized according to 38 sections, the corresponding industries of medical knowledge. 2. Foreign periodicals. The tables of contents, microfilms (1963) published by VNIIMI. Microfilms, photocopies of tables of contents from 500 main magazines for each industry of medicine and the countries (GTsNMB fund) are created. 3. Thematic bibliographic information on cards (help and bibliographic medical bureau at GTsNMB). Information is given on 42 hottest topics.
The materials stated above intend generally for the organization of card files in medical libraries, bodies of information, but on separate subjects can be used by readers individually. On the basis of these sources microfilms, photocopies, papers or transfers of articles from foreign magazines can be ordered in GTsNMB, VNIIMI.
Important sources of bibliographic information are special bulletins, indexes, magazines. Alarm bibliographic indexes are published since 1971. The All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (AUISTI) on a number of sections of theoretical medicine. Operational information in the form of tables of contents of articles from 900 medical - biol, magazines is given in bulletins «to Current contents. Life Sciences» (1967) and «Current contents. Clinical practice» (1973), leaving weekly in the USA. Important source of bibliographic information continues to remain «Index medicus». Since 1960 it is published in the form of monthly and summary annual releases in which material is located alphabetically subject headings and alphabetically authors. The description of work in original language is given only in an author's part. To an index the appendix — the index of subject headings — «Medical Subject headings» is annually published, with the help to-rogo it is possible to establish the main and the additional headings reflecting literature on a subject. Annually is registered apprx. 0,5 million articles from 2300 magazines of various countries of the world. Use of the COMPUTER not only for accumulation of information, but also for implementation of its collecting, comparison and search with a speed considerably exceeding the speed of similar manual or semi-automatic processes is of great importance for specialized libraries and information centers. The system of the analysis and search of medical literature (Medlars) created in National medical library of the USA carries out three main objectives: 1) monthly release of «Index medicus»; 2) preparation of periodic indexes of the current literature on separate subjects (see below); 3) help and bibliographic service (drawing up bibliographies of literature on special requests). In comparison with an initial semi-automatic method of drawing up the index «Index medicus» which demanded 21/2 weeks on preparation of release this system (the COMPUTER connected with the printer) demands 5 days, including operations of editing and printing.
Use of the COMPUTER allows to publish along with «Index medicus» a significant amount of the proceeding bibliographic indexes about new literature according to separate sections of medicine — Anestesiology bibliography (1968), Current literature on veneral disease (1968), Current literature of blood (1968), Diabet literature index (1966), Cerebrovascular bibliography (1961), Artificial kidney bibliography (1967), Fibrinolysis, thrombolysis and blood doting bibliography (1965), Index radiohygienicus (1965), Index rheumatology (1965), Index to dental literature (1966), Endocrinology index (1968), Current bibliography of epidemiology (1969), Toxity bibliography (1968), etc.
Advantage of these editions before «Index medicus» consists first of all in a kompleksirovaniye of material, existence of detailed subject or permutation (keywords) indexes, a detailed rubrication.
Abstract indexes of literature. In a crust, time the majority of medical disciplines has the abstract periodical press. The USSR in the «Abstract magazine» published by VINITI, consisting of summary volumes (on separate disciplines) and separate issues of «The abstract magazine», contains information for specialists in many sections of theoretical medicine.
Abstract information on clinical sections of medicine and a number of theoretical disciplines is published in the «Medical abstract magazine» (1957) issued by VNIIMI.
For the most bystry notification of specialists about literature in urgent problems of medicine of VNIIMI publishes «Express information» in the form of expanded papers or the reduced transfers of articles from foreign magazines (12 releases a year according to 12 sections). In the same purposes «News of medicine and medical equipment» are ezhedekadno published.
From foreign abstract editions the fullest is the complex of magazines «Excerpta medica» (1947) issued in Holland in English. In 1972 there were 40 main series according to the following sections: Obstetrics and gynecology. Anatomy. Anesthesiology. Arthritis and rheumatism. Biophysics. Biochemistry. Diseases of a chest cavity. Virology. Internal diseases. Occupational health. Hygiene of the environment. Gastroenterology. Hematology. Genetics of the person. Gerontology and geriatrics. Dermatology and venereology. Health care. Social medicine. Immunology, serology, transplantation. Medical microbiology. Neurology, neurosurgery. General pathology, pathological anatomy. Orthopedics and traumatology. Otorhinolaryngology. Ophthalmology. Pediatrics. Plastic surgery. Psychiatry. Radiology. Rehabilitation. Cancer. Cardiovascular diseases. Developmental biology. Urology and nephrology. Pharmacology and toxicology. Physiology. Surgery. Economy of health care. Endocrinology. Nuclear medicine.
The total amount of the edition in 1967 made over 200 000 p. of the text. An arrangement of materials in sections systematic according to the scheme, standard for each section. In the 12th number of each section it is published summary annual author's and subject indexes.
In French the complex of abstract magazines Bulletin Signaletique (1939) on the series appropriate to separate sections of theoretical and applied medicine is issued.
The abstract magazines which arose at the beginning of 20 century and issued in a crust, time in Germany on the following specialties continue to keep the value: internal diseases; surgery; ophthalmology; biology, physiology and pharmacology; pediatrics; neurology and psychiatry; dermatology and venereology; gynecology and obstetrics; otorhinolaryngology; radiology; tuberculosis (Zentralorgan fur die gesamte Chirurgie — 1913; Kongresszentralblatt fur die gesamte irmere Medizin — 1912; Berichte uber die gesamte Biologie. Abt. B. Berichte uber die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmakologie — 1920) etc.
A number of foreign abstract magazines contains information on areas of knowledge, boundary with medicine: Chemisches Zentralblatt (1830); Chemical abstracts (1901), Biological abstracts (1926) and its bibliographic addition Bioresearch index (1967). In them materials from the editions which are not receiving reflection in abstract magazines of a medical profile are reviewed preferential.
After World War II the number of abstract magazines of medical subject considerably increased. In a crust, time there are more than 300 special editions of this type.
Indexes of survey works. Data on reviews of the works devoted to clinical medicine selectively are provided in the index «Literature for the practical doctor» (GTsNMB). The reviews published in magazines are registered also in «The chronicle of journal articles». Data on the collections of survey works planned to the edition annually are published in prospectuses of VNIIMI and VINITI.
A source of information on reviews in foreign magazines is the constant section «Index medicus» «Bibliography of medical reviews» (1960) published in each issue of this magazine; data on reviews come down further in annual releases, and also are published by the separate edition.
Indexes of separate types of medical literature. Descriptions of inventions to copyright certificates and patents are published in the official bulletin «Opening, Inventions, Industrial Samples and Brand Marks» (1924) — 48 numbers a year. Medicine and veterinary science — a class 30.
Data about the magazineah on a certain subject, the name of the magazine, its existence in this or that library can be received from the following sources published annually: «The summary catalog of foreign literature». Natural sciences. Equipment. Agriculture. Medicine. Periodicals (1969); «The index of the foreign periodicals which are written out by the organizations of the Soviet Union» (since 1970). Natural sciences. Equipment. Agriculture. Medicine. P. I. Alphabetic list. P. II. Classified index (1965). Besides, the release «New foreign magazines» is annually published (since 1968).
GTsNMB publishes «The list of the foreign periodicals» received by GTsNMB, republican scientific medical libraries, medical institutions and the enterprises of the medical industry. The index of «World medical periodicals» gives the fullest data on medical magazines of the world; the main release published in Geneva in 1961 contains data on 5086 magazines, additional (1968) — still about 700.
Retrospective indexes of medical literature
Medical literature of last years received reflection in numerous and diverse general and special indexes.
Widely the six-volume «Systematic catalog of library of Medicochirurgical academy» published in 1871 — 1884 and including 42 000 names of books, brochures, theses, 110 000 names of journal articles in different languages captured book and journal literature of 19 century.
The most extensive retrospective source supplying the information on literature of various countries of the world from 15 to 20 century is «Index-Catalogue of the Library of the SurgeonGeneral’s Office United States Army (Armed Forces Medical library)» published in the USA in 1880 — 1955 in the IV series (on the IX volume IV of a series the edition stopped). Data on 418 309 books and 2 556 036 journal articles are provided in the published 58 volumes of this catalog.
Owing to significant growth in medical literature in a crust, time drawing up retrospective indexes is in most cases limited to either a certain chronological period, or the list of the literature published in one state or in one language. So, the Soviet medical literature in Georgian is reflected in the index «Scientific literature of Georgia. Medicine». Tbilisi, 1951.
The Bulgarian book medical literature in a systematic order is described in the prince A. Balan «by Bjlgarski knigopis for the 100th to a time», 1806 — 1905. Sofia, 1909. There is a number of the retrospective proceeding indexes of medical literature of Yugoslavia, e.g. _eremich R. «Bibliografija to a srpska to the zdravstvena of a knizhevnost 1757 — 1918». Beograd, 1947, etc. The accounting of the medical and published in the country other literature allows to carry out its retrospective search for the big period. So, e.g., in the USSR books are considered in «The book chronicle» since 1907, and in «A year-book of the book of the USSR» since 1941.
Indexes of medical literature (Year-books) are published in many countries of the world. In pre-revolutionary Russia such tasks were carried out in a private order. The indexes made by I. M. Rachmaninov (were published in the Medical Review magazine for 1877 — 1906), K. I. Zmigrodsky and M. G. Nemzer's indexes captured literature for 1890 — 1896. Literature for 1911 — 1912 is registered in «A year-book of the Russian medical press».
In the USSR there are arches of the Soviet medical literature for 1928, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1936.
During the post-war period of GTsNMB published indexes of medical literature of the USSR for 1941 — 1944 and for 1945 — 1946 (sost. B. A. Ivanov). Further (1957 — 1963) indexes appeared under the name «Scientific Medical Literature of the USSR». In 1972 the year-book for 1966 was published.
The index of medical literature of various countries of the world of «Index medicus» appearing in three series (1879 — 1899), (1903-1920), (1921 — 1926) and its continuation of «Quarterly cumulative index to current medical literature» (1916 — 1926), «Quarterly cumulative index medicus» (1927 — 1956) uses wide popularity.
However these indexes could not capture all world medical literature and concerning a number of the countries give its selective account. Therefore also indexes of the national medical bibliography of the certain countries of the world are important: Polska bibliografia lekarska (since 1945), Warszawa (since 1948), the originator Stanislav Konopka. In Czechoslovakia since 1947 with the assistance of Carel Ruzhichki «Bibliografia medica Cechoslovaka» is published. K a crust, time are published indexes for 1970. In Yugoslavia the Center of technical and scientific documentation since 1953 publishes «Bilten naucne dokumentacije za medicinu, farmaciju». The Finnish medical society «Duodecim» publishes bibliographic year-books of «Medicina Fennica» with the list of the literature leaving in Finland and in Finnish in other countries. Papers for the most important works are given in English. In Denmark since 1953 «Index medicus Danicus» is published. The Swiss academy of medical sciences with assistance of Swiss state. libraries since 1943 publishes annual indexes of «Bibliographia medica Helvetica». In Belgium since 1946 there is «Bibliographia medica Belgica».
In Brazil since 1939 "Indece-catalogo medico brasiliero" is published. In Japan since 1953 there is «Japan science review, Medical sciences».
The abstract magazines issued in last years continue to keep the value: leaving in the USSR from 1928 to 1941. «The central abstract medical magazine»; published in 1948 — 1957. «The Soviet medical abstract review» — 15 series, and also the foreign abstract periodical press.
Survey retrospective editions
the annual reviews which Arose at the beginning of 19 century in Germany like «Jahresbericht» and at the end of 19 century reviews like «Ergebnisse Jahresbericht», and also final reviews on the separate industries like «Annual review» were widely adopted further and in other countries.
Such editions appear mostly under the names «Annual review», «Year-book», «The medical annual» and contain extensive materials according to B. of m. In the field of theoretical disciplines the editions «Annual review of biochemistry», «Annual review of physiology» use the greatest popularity.
German «Ergebnisse» and «Reviews» published in the USA are widely used (Physiological reviews, Bacteriological reviews). In recent years in the USA retrospective reviews of «Advances», «Recent advances», «Year-book» on many sections of theoretical and clinical medicine are published.
In the USSR reviews of retrospective character are published in the form of books, collections in the Results of Science series (VINITI), according to separate sections of medicine (thematic reviews) of VNIIMI, and also published in magazines «Achievements of Chemistry», «Achievements of Modern Biology», etc. Without replacing reading original literature, reviews allow to capture quickly achievements of science on a certain subject, to get acquainted with the main facts, and also according to the indexes of literature attached to the review to find ways to more detailed acquaintance with separate works on the original.
Retrospective information on single questions and sections of medicine, often quite narrow, thematic indexes of literature give, they differ in a form, purpose, features of selection of literature and its systematization etc.
Other types of retrospective bibliographic grants are: indexes of contents of various periodicals, lists of works of research establishments, higher educational institutions, indexes of theses, works of the certain scientist and literature on it, etc.
Biographic dictionaries can give significant help in identification of works of the last type, e.g.: «The Russian biographic dictionary», 1896 — 1918; L. F. Zmeev's books «The Russian doctors-writers», 1886 — 1892; «Biographisches Lexikon der hervorra-genden Aerzte» B. I \V (1929 — 1934).
Extensive lists of such dictionaries and other materials are provided in I. M. Kauffman's book «The Russian biographic and biobibliographic dictionaries», M., 1956.
At acquaintance with literature of a question priknizhny and pristateyny indexes of literature are of great importance. Quite often indexes in the large multivolume managements and monographs are a good source. Valuable pristateyny indexes are available in works of survey type.
Indexes of bibliographic grants (the bibliography of the medical bibliography)
a Significant amount various in a form, purpose of sources of bibliographic information caused the necessity of their account and systematization in the form of the edition of special indexes of bibliographic grants.
(Books) given about the current bibliographic editions are provided in «The book chronicle», the section 30.5 «Bibliographic Grants», and about the bibliographic indexes published in periodic and the proceeding editions, in «The chronicle of journal articles» — the same undressed. Since 1946 the year-book «The bibliography of the Soviet bibliography» is published, in Krom receive reflection as the bibliographic indexes published in the form of books and the priknizhny, pristateyny bibliography. Since 1958 reviews about a condition of the bibliography of the separate industries of knowledge are published in a year-book, there is a special section «Medicine. Health care».
Except the editions of the general type stated above where the medicine enters in the form of the section, there are also special bibliographies of medical bibliographies. The first, fullest report of indexes of various type was given by M. P. Multanovsky in work «The Russian medical press. Bibliographic materials», it is published in «The central abstract medical magazine» (1930, t. 5, the issue 2 — 4; 1934, t. 13, issue 5; 1938, t. 21, issues 1), are available also separate prints.
Data on domestic and main foreign bibliographies, including the bibliographic and abstract periodical press, are provided in the book «Guide to the Medical Bibliography» under the editorship of Ya. Yu. Lyubarsky, M., 1965; in V. V. Gnucheva's book «The guide to the foreign bibliography of medical literature», L., 1957, etc.
The valuable handbook are the guides which are systematically published abroad, e.g. «and guide to the world’s abstracting and indexing services in science and technology», Waschington, 1963 in which data on sources of the current bibliographic abstract and survey information on separate sections * medicine are provided.
Shall be carried to B.'s bibliography of m and those works in which along with the list of editions their analysis, an assessment, recommendations about use is given are considered the main stages of development, e.g. Mul-tanovsky M. P. «Bibliography in scientific and applied medicine», Sverdlovsk, 1947, and also works on history of the medical bibliography, e.g. Lyubarsky Ya. Yu. «The main stages of development of the medical bibliography of the USSR» (1917 — 1967); in the book «Experience of Medical Libraries», M., 1968, page 20 — 40; Brodman E. «The development of medical bibliography», Baltimore, 1954.
Thus, the m presents to B. rather difficult complex of various sources complementing each other. The volume of their use is defined by a target orientation of search of literature (most often for acquaintance with the current literature or thematic selection).
The indexes which are completely reflecting all types of medical literature or all sources on any question no therefore it is necessary to use the most optimum combination them: catalogs of libraries and advanced information; in necessary cases — «Chronicles»; for foreign sources — indexes of books, indexes («Index medicus») supplementing them abstract magazines on the industry, etc.
Existence of several sources causes the necessity of familiarity with them for the choice of the most valuable. At execution of the index of literature it is necessary to be guided by the State all-union standards: GOST 7.1 — 69 «The description of works of the press for bibliographic and information publications», M., 1969; GOST 7. 12 — 70. «Reductions of the Russian words and phrases in the katalogizatsionny and bibliographic description», M., 1970.
Bibliography A. V faded. Information support of scientific research (on the example of physiology), JI., 1974; Of N at the p e - in and V. V. Guide to the foreign bibliography of medical literature (1945 — 1956), JI., 1957; Lisitsyn Yu. P. Uniform system of scientific medical information in the USSR and the socialist countries, M., 1974; Plesky G. M. Sources of information on medical literature, Kiev, 1968; Fulton J. E. The great medical bibliographers, Philadelphia, 1951; Garrison F. H. a. Morton L. T. A medical bibliography, Philadelphia — Toronto, 1970; P about s t e 1 W. D. Applied medical bibliography, Springfield, 1955; Trenkov of X. Meditsinskata bibliography, Sofia, 1956.
M. P. Multanovsky, Ya. Yu. Lyubarsky.