BEZREDKA Alexander Mikhaylovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
BEZREDKA Alexander Mikhaylovich

BEZREDKA Alexander Mikhaylovich (1870 — 1940) — the microbiologist. Was born in Russia. Graduated from natural department physical and mathematical f-that Novorossiysk un-that (1892, Odessa) and medical f-t Parisian un-that (1897) and until the end of life worked in Pasterovskom in-those for I. I. Mechnikov, having passed a way from the assistant, the head of laboratory to professor. After I. I. Mechnikov (1916) death became his successor.

The beginning of scientific activity of A. M. Bezredki is connected with studying of processes of phagocytosis, in particular with studying of participation in immunity of leukocytes, a research of leukotoxins and antileukocytic serum, receiving and a research of toxin of typroid bacteria. Together with I. I. Mechnikov A. M. Bezredka developed a method of vaccination against a typhoid. Later he offered the method of preparation of so-called sensibilized vaccines based on interaction of bacteria or toxins with a specific antiserum.

The essential contribution was made by A. M. Bezredka in studying of an anaphylaxis. It entered the term «acute anaphylaxis» and the role of a nervous system in its development is studied. He developed for prevention of shock everywhere the applied method of desensitization called by his name (see. Bezredki methods ).

The most important works of A. M. Bezredki are devoted to problems of local immunity and an antivirus. Studying mechanisms of an infection, he came to conclusion about a specific susceptibility to microbes only of certain cells of an organism: e.g., to a malignant anthrax only cells of skin, are susceptible to microbes of dysentery — only clerks of a mucous membrane of intestines etc. According to A. M. Bezredki, immunity depends not on development of antibodies, and on immunity of receptive cells, their peculiar blockade. From here need of local vaccination (in skin, per os and so forth). He developed the doctrine about an antivirus; he considered the last specific medical drug and means for obtaining local immunity. The practical actions for local vaccination offered A. M. Bezredkaya keep in nek-ry cases the value in view of various ability of separate bodies to answer direct contact with a vaccine. During the last period of the activity of A. M. Bezredk studied the phenomena of immunity against malignant tumors. A. M. Bezredka kept in close connection with the Russian scientists; many bacteriologists of our country worked under its management in Pasterovskom in-those. He was a friend of the Soviet Union, visited the USSR as a part of scientific delegations.

Works: Anaphylaxie et antianaphylaxie, P., 1907 (Russian lane, M., 1928); Immunisation locale, pansements specifiques, P., 1925 (Russian lane, Paris, 1925); About value of irritants in an infection and immunity, Zhurn. Ekspery, biol, and medical, t. 7, No. 18, page 265, 1927; Etudes sur l’immunitS dans les maladies infectieuses, P., 1928; Sketches on immunity, the lane with fr., M. — D., 1929; Antivirusth6rapie, R., 1930 (Russian lane, L., 1932); Le choc anaphylactique et la principe de la d6sensibilisation, P., 1930; Anaphylaxie et antianaphylaxie, in book: Traits physiol, norm, et path., publ. par G. H. Roger et L. R. Binet, t. 7, p. 647, P., 1934.

Bibliography: Alexander Mikhaylovich Bezredka (1870 — 1940), Shurn. mikr., epid, and immun., jvft 4, page 146, 1971; Metel-kin A. I. Bezredka and his value in microbiology, in the same place, No. 8, page 59, 1950; Fast walkers of JI. Ya. Materials on stories of medical microbiology in pre-revolutionary Russia, page 296, M., 1948; Delaunay A. Vie et oeuvre d’Alexandre Besredka, Bull. Inst. Pasteur, t. 69, p. 73, 1971.

Yu. P. Lisitsyn.