BETAINES (Latin beta beet) — the natural organic matters which are derivatives of amino acids, which nitrogen completely metilirovan. B. are eurysynusic in flora and to a lesser extent in animal organisms. B. find application in medical practice as an initial product at production pharm. drugs (e.g., atsidol, atsidolamin).
Glitsinbetain, or just a betaine (trimetilaminouksusny to - that, C 5 H 11 O 2 N). Let's well dissolve in water and alcohol, t ° is very hygroscopic, almost insoluble on air, pl 293 °. In a large number contains in vegetable organisms (in sugar beet to 5%); it is found in muscles of many backboneless animals (apprx. 0,2%), in fabrics and urine of mammals. It is for the first time found in juice of beet (Beta vulgaris).
Glitsinbetain it is possible to receive from glycine by means of the pounded sprouts of wheat in aerobic conditions at pH 7,4. Addition in system of methionine, i.e. the donor of methyl groups, raises an exit of a glitsinbetain. Reverse was observed in animal fabrics — at introduction to rats with food 15 N of a glitsinbetain tag 15 N was found in glycine of proteins.
Glitsinbetain, apparently, takes part in process transmethylations (see) in an animal organism. It is shown that methyl groups of a glitsinbetain can be had on gomotsistein. This process, the proceeding in vitro in cuts and homogenates of a liver and leading to formation of methionine, does not demand aerobic conditions, is not exposed to braking by inhibitors of oxidizing enzymes and is carried out also by means of dializovanny suspension from the fabric which is dried up in the frozen look.
As the donor of methyl groups glitsinbetain guanidine - acetum to - you and in updating of methyl groups of sincaline and methionine takes part in methylation.
Introduction of a glitsinbetain with food to young rats prevents at them development of the acute hemorrhagic degeneration of kidneys arising at the diet deprived of sincaline.
Muriatic glitsinbetain receive from molasses (waste of beet sugar production). Apply as substitute salt to - you.
Carnitine (γ-trimetilamino-β-oksimaslyany to - that, C 7 H 15 O 3 N). Has the expressed main properties. It is for the first time allocated in 1905 by S. Gulevich and R. P. Krimberg from muscles of mammals where contents makes it 0,02 — 0,05%.
A. E. Braunstein offers the scheme of formation of a carnitine from amino acid of oxyproline by dehydrogenation of the last oxygenases of amino acids; formed at the same time альфа-кето-гамма-окси-дельта-аминовалериановую to - that can be considered a potential source of a carnitine:
At a larva of a flour worm (Tenebrio molitor) the growth factor called BT vitamin (from Tenebrio) which was a carnitine was found. It is proved that the carnitine participates in exchange of fatty acids, causing transport them in mitochondrial membranes.
It is found in many plants; it is for the first time found in tubers of Stachys tuberifera.
Trigonellin (a betaine nicotinic to - you):
It is eurysynusic in plants. It gets to animal fabrics with vegetable food, however its education and as a product of exchange nicotinic to - you is possible (an antipellagrichesky factor).
Other antipellagrichesky factor — amidenicotinic to - you (niacinamide) as a result of reaction of transmethylation can form amide of a betaine nicotinic to - you — trigonellamid:
Gomarin (metilirovanny picolinic to - that), isomer of trigonellin, can be formed as a result of N-methylation of a pyridinic ring. It is found in the highest animals and some invertebrates.
Ergotionein (betaine 2-thio-histidine):
It is allocated from an ergot. In an animal organism contains in erythrocytes; in blood of the person his contents makes 2,5 — 8 mg of %, in blood of a pig — apprx. 40 — 50 mg of %, in blood of a cat — 1 mg of %. According to some authors, ergotionein blood of an exogenous origin and in an animal organism is not synthesized. It does not replace a L-histidine in food of a rat.
Hypaphorine (betaine of tryptophane):
Contains in sugar beet.
Bibliography: Braunstein A. E. Biochemistry of amino-acid exchange, page 127, etc., M., 1949; Zbareky B. I., Ivanov I. I. and M and r d and sh e in G. P. Biological chemistry, L., 1972; Kre-t about in and the p B. L. Fundamentals of phytochemistry, page 40 8, etc., M., 1971; J about h p-s about η V. S. of Water-soluble vitamins, Ann. Rev. Biochem., v. 24, p. 452, 1955; Olson J. A. Lipid metabolism, ibid., v. 35, p. 559, 1966, bibliogr.
I. M. Bocharnikova.