BERTsELIUS to Yen Jacob (Berzelius Jons Jakob, 1779 — 1848) — the Swedish chemist and the mineralogist, the president of the Stockholm academy of Sciences and the member of almost all European academies. Studied medicine and chemistry in Uppsala un-those. Directed department of chemistry and pharmacy at medical school in Stockholm. Discovered cerium, selenium, thorium; for the first time received zirconium, titanium, silicon in a stand-at-ease. In works developed the atomic theory; entered modern signs of chemical elements, established formulas of many substances, including and waters (H 2 O), with a big accuracy for the time determined combining weights of many chemical elements.
I. Bertselius for the first time allocated organic chemistry as independent discipline. He established applicability of stoichiometric laws to organic compounds (see. Stekhiometriya ), however them found possible education only under the influence of the special «vital force». On positions of vitalism I. Bertselius remained and after his pupil F. Voeller synthesized oxalic to - that, and then and urea.
Works: Theorie dcs proportions chimiques, P., 1835; Lchrbuch der Ghemie, Dresden — Lpz., Bd 1 — 10, 1835—1841.
Bibliography: Solovyov Yu. I. and Kurinnoy W. I. Jacob Berzelius, life and activity, M., 1961, bibliogr.
A. P. Brestkin.