BERRIES — not revealing polyspermous fruits of plants, in to-rykh seeds are shipped in juicy pulp. In botany distinguish the presents I., representing one polyspermous fruit, and false — consisting of several small one-seeded fruits. To the presents I. currant, grapes, a cranberry, bilberry, etc. belong; to false — the wild strawberry and strawberry which are multinutlets and the blackberry, raspberry representing mnogokos-tyanka.
Majority I. are edible and are used in food of people both in natural, and in the processed look. Nutrition value I. it is caused by good tastes and considerable content of various biologically active agents, from to-rykh the most important vitamins are. Therefore practically all I. have fortifying and antiscorbutic effect. Nek-rye Ya. are fruits of medicinal plants (see) also are used in pharmacology. Occur among wild-growing types also poisonous I. (see. I dovity plants). Such I., as the wild strawberry and a guelder-rose, use in the cosmetic purposes.
Considerable part Ya. grows in a wild look, however many of them are cultivated. The main suppliers of wild-growing berries in the USSR are Siberia and the North of the European part of the country. Among wild-growing I. cowberry, bilberry (see), a cranberry have the greatest trade value. Blueberry, a guelder-rose, berries of a barberry, a hawthorn, elder black, a juniper, a mountain ash, a bird cherry, etc. by Nek-rye from them are less used (yapr., the guelder-rose, a mountain ash) have bitterish smack, to-ry is eliminated after short-term boiling in water (scalding). From cultivated I. grapes, a wild strawberry, currant are most eurysynusic.
Chemical structure I. it is characterized by considerable water content (to 85 — 88%), a small amount of proteins (apprx. 1%) and almost total absence of fats. An exception make I. a sea-buckthorn, containing up to 8% of fats (see. Sea-buckthorn oil). Amount of carbohydrates in I. fluctuates within 5 — 10% (in grapes apprx. 18%). They are presented by generally simple sugars, among to-rykh glucose, fructose, sucrose prevail. In the list of many I. also cellulose (0,5 — 5%) enters, its greatest number contains in I. raspberries, sea-buckthorn, wild strawberry.
I. contain various organic to - you (0,5 — 6%), thanking the Crimea nek-ry of them have acid taste. The highest content organic to - t is noted in I. barberry, red currant, cranberry. Among organic to - t prevail lemon and apple. In many I. contains also tartaric, acetic, amber, salicylic, ant, cinchonic and others to - you. In berries of a guelder-rose are found isovalerianic, caprylic to - you, in a cranberry — cinchonic, ursolovy to - that, in a mountain ash — wine, sorbic. To - you the cranberry and cowberry differ in the high content of the benzoic.
Vitamins (see) are presented by generally ascorbic acid (see), bioflavonoids (see) and in small amounts vitamins of group B. The highest content ascorbic to - you are marked out in I. a dogrose (see), and also blackcurrant and a sea-buckthorn. Cowberry, a cranberry, blackberry, raspberry, a wild strawberry contain many bioflavonoi-d, a sea-buckthorn, a mountain ash, cloudberries — a significant amount of carotene, and a sea-buckthorn, blackberry, a wild strawberry, blackcurrant — also tocopherol (see). In raspberry, a sea-buckthorn, a wild strawberry, a mountain ash, a guelder-rose, grapes, blackcurrant there is a phthiocol (see Fillokhinona).
I. are rich with mineral substances, among to-rykh salts of potassium prevail. The greatest number of potassium is revealed in black and red currant, a gooseberry. Many I. contain a significant amount of iron (bilberry, a wild strawberry, a sea-buckthorn, blackcurrant, raspberry). In structure I. also knitting, tanning, aromatic substances, sitosterols, phytoncides and other chemical connections enter. Energy value of the majority I. it is not high (30 — 50 kcal on 100 g of an edible part of a product).
Due to the availability of the knitting and tanning substances bilberry, a bird cherry, a guelder-rose, a cornel, blackcurrant, cloudberries are shown at disorders of function and inflammatory diseases of intestines. The cranberry, cowberry, blueberry, a guelder-rose, grapes, a wild strawberry, blackcurrant, a black-fruited mountain ash have a promoting effect on secretion of a gastric juice therefore they are recommended sick subacid gastritis. I. a sea-buckthorn and the oil received from them are shown at a peptic ulcer of a stomach and hypersecretion of a gastric juice. The berries containing iron and folic to - that (grapes, raspberry, cherry, a wild strawberry, stone bramble), have favorable effect on a hemopoiesis. The guelder-rose, a black-fruited mountain ash and a wild strawberry have hypotensive effect. Red and blackcurrant, a cranberry, a wild strawberry, bilberry, stone bramble strengthen mineral metabolism in this connection they are recommended to patients with gout, an urolithiasis. I. a juniper, a barberry, cloudberries, a wild strawberry, blackcurrant, a guelder-rose, a gooseberry, a mountain ash, plum, a bird cherry have diuretic effect. Febrifugal, antiinflammatory and sudorific action I is known. raspberries, blackberries, wild strawberry, clematis. I. guelder-roses, mountain ashes possess antiinflammatory and styptic action, I. a barberry, a wild strawberry, a gooseberry, a guelder-rose, a mountain ash — cholagogue action. The berries containing cellulose and pectic substances (red and blackcurrant, a wild strawberry, raspberry), strengthen a peristaltics of intestines.
Majority I. are perishable goods. Various microflora quickly develops in them, among a cut mold fungi and yeast prevail. Therefore at the room temperature they can be stored only several days. The exception is made by the cowberry and a cranberry supporting the benzoic to - that in this connection their shelf-lifes are extended up to several months. For the purpose of increase in shelf-lifes I. apply various methods of conservation (see): cooling, freezing, zasakharivaniye, pasteurization, drying. From I. also make jam, juice (see Juice fruit), fruit drinks, kvass, kissels, compotes, jams, fruit liqueurs, wine (see) etc.
It is necessary to consider that I. can be contaminated by eggs of helminths (most often ascarids). The garden wild strawberry and strawberry are especially dangerous in this respect. The last, besides, are more often than others I. can cause allergic reactions (see. Food allergy).
See also Food, Foodstuff.
Bibliography: B about e N to about I. D. Vegetables and
fruit, Physiological and medicinal properties, Voronezh, 1976; Vigo-r about in L. I. Sad of medical cultures, Sverdlovsk, 1976; Koshcheev A. K. Generous gifts of the nature, Perm, 1979; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of M. F. Nesterin and I. M. Skurikhin, page 91, M., 1979; Chemical composition of foodstuff, under the editorship of A. A. Pokrovsky, M., 1976. A. A. Velichko.