BERNSTEIN Nikolay Aleksandrovich (1896 — 1966) — the Soviet physiologist, the member correspondent of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1946), the winner of the State award USSR (1948).
In 1919 ended medical f-t of MSU, and then courses on mathematical f-those. Upon termination of university it is called in ranks of RKKA, served as the doctor till 1921.
Since 1922 in Central in-those work of the beginnings of a research in the field of physiology of movements, the become then its main specialty. Managed laboratories on studying of movements in State in-that psychology (1925 — 1927), State in-that labor protection (1927 — 1933), VIEM (1933-1937), TsNIIFK (1936—1950), Ying-those neurology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1943 — 1960).
N. A. Bernstein is the author of numerous works on questions of physiology of movements. It brought a number of radical improvements in technology of registration and the analysis of movements [[ [KIMOTsIKLOGRAFIYa | kimotsiklografiya ]] (see), tsiklogrammetriya ]. He for the first time formulated a problem of studying of movements of the highest animals and the person as a task about management of complex kinematic system, in a cut along with active animal forces an important role is played by forces of inertia and reactive forces. The impossibility of the priori taking note of these factors on the course of the movement led it to formation of ideas of touch corrections (1947) as the necessary mechanism of creation of movements. According to N. A. Bernstein's representations the main objective of coordination of movements consists in overcoming excess number of degrees of freedom. For different motive tasks it is carried out at the different levels of a nervous system. The leading level for this class of movements is that, on Krom making decision on correction of the movement is already possible. Ideas of the multi-level organization of a control system of the movements leaned on the extensive experimental material received by N. A. Bernstein in researches of shock movements, a piano game and locomotions — walking, run, a jump.
He formulated a concept about physiology of activity; its main essence consists that in physiology of an animal expediency is leading. Any act of any activity is directed to achievement of the goal. This purpose defines the choice of action and a way of the accounting of conditions in which the movement is carried out. At the same time mechanisms of control and stabilization (touch corrections) are used.
N. A. Bernstein's works make a theoretical basis of modern biomechanics (see), in particular biomechanics of sport, prosthetics, work, activity of astronauts, etc.
Works: General biomechanics, M., 1926; Researches on biodynamics of locomotions, M. — L., 1935 (edition); Researches on biodynamics of walking, run, jump, M., 1940 (edition); About creation of movements, M., 1947; Sketches on physiology of movements and physiology of activity, M., 1966; The coordination and regulation of movements, Oxford — N. Y., 1967.
Bibliography: Nikolay Aleksandrovich Bernstein, Vopr, philosophies, No. 3, page 182, 1966; N. A. Bernstein's Memories, in book: Models structural funktsionaln. the organizations of some biol, systems, under the editorship of I. M. Gelfand, page 3, M., 1966, bibliogr.
V. S. Gurfinkel.