From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BERNARD Claude (Bernard Claude, 1813 — 1878) is the French physiologist, one of founders of modern physiology and experimental pathology; the academician French AN on section of medicine and surgery (1854) and section of physiology (1868). In 1839 ended medical f-t. Since 1841 began to work in laboratory F. Marangdi, in 1847 became his deputy. In 1854 received department of general physiology in Sorbonne; since 1855 — professor of experimental physiology in College de France. Since 1868 occupied department of comparative physiology in the Museum of natural history.

The first work of K. Bernard is devoted to studying of anatomy and physiology of a secretory nerve of a sialaden (1843). In the subsequent researches K. Bernard in details analyzed fiziol, mechanisms of secretion and value of the digesting properties of saliva, a gastric juice and secret of a pancreas for a healthy and sick organism. K. Bernard's work on glikogenoobrazovatelny function of a liver and a role of a liver in maintenance of necessary level of sugar in blood (1853) highest awards of the French academy of Sciences were conferred. The well-known experience which received the name of «a sugar prick» he proved that in a myelencephalon the centers regulating carbohydrate metabolism of an organism since at disturbance of these centers there is a removal of sugar to urine are located. It created the theory of a sugar mocheiznureniye (see. diabetes mellitus ).

In 1853 K. Bernard finished a large research on nervous control of blood circulation. Studying fiziol. features of a peripheral nervous system, it opened a role of a sympathetic nervous system in regulation of a gleam of vessels. Its experimental works on studying of functions of blood, a problem external and incretion of glands are known, to questions of heat generation, on the electric phenomena in animal fabrics, on functions of various nerves and a problem of returnable sensitivity and a number of works on effect of the anesthetizing and narcotic substances.

K. Bernard's concept about value of constancy of internal environment of an organism formed in modern medicine a basis of the doctrine about homeostasis (see). On the philosophical views K. Bernard was a typical positivist (though he called himself just the determinist).

K. Bernard's pupils were. d' Arsonval, L. Ranvye, A. Dastr, etc. In its laboratory I. M. Sechenov and I. R. Tarkhanov worked.

Works: Nouvelle fonction du foie, consider comme organe producteur de matifcre of sucr£e chez l’homme et chez les animaux, P., 1853;& Legons de physiologic experimental appliquec la medecine, P., 1855; Myo-moires sur les pancreas et sur le role du sue pancr6atique dans les phenomfcnes digestifs, particulifcrement dans la digestion des matures grasses neutres, P., 1856; Legons sur les effects des substances toxiques et medicamenteuses, P., 1857; Lecons sur la physiologie et la pathologie au systfcme nerveux, P., 1858 (Russian lane, SPb., 1866 — 1867); Logons sur les proprietes physiolo-giques et les alterations pathologiques des liquides de l’organisme, t. 1—2, P., 1859; Introduction h l’etude de la medecine ekhryo-rimentale, P., 1865 (Russian lane, SPb., 1866); Legons sur les proprietes des tissus vivants, P., 1866 (Russian lane, SPb., 1867); De la physiologie generale, P., 1872; Legons de la pathologie experimentale, P., 1872 (pyc. lane, M. — JI., 1937); Legons sur les anesth6-siques et sur l’asphyxie, P., 1875; Legons sur la chaleur animale, sur les effects de la chaleur et sur la fifcvre, P., 1876; Legons sur le diabfcte et la glycogenfcse animale, P., 1877; La science experimentale, P., 1878; Legons de physiologie operatoire, P., 1879; Legons sur les phenomfcnes de la vie communs aux animaux et aux vegetaux, t. 1—2, P., 1878 — 1879 (Russian lane, SPb., 1878).

Bibliography: Dwarf L. H. Claude Bernard, M., 1964; Bergeron G. And. Claude Bernard et la recherche clinique, Laval med, t. 36, p. 953, 1965; Claude Bernard, zivot a dilo, Praha, 1961; F an u r e J. L. Claude Bernard, P., 1926; Major R. H. History of medicine, v. 2, p. 775, Springfield, 1955; Olmsted J. Claude Bernard, physiologist, N. Y. — L., 1938.

V. A. Shidlovsky.