BENIN (People's republic Benin, former name Dahomey; the country is renamed on November 30, 1975) — the state into Zap. To Africa. Former colony of France. Since 1958 the self-controlled republic as a part of the French community. Since 1960 the independent state. The area is 112 622 km 2 . Population of 3,1 million people (1975). The capital — Porto-Novo (apprx. 91 thousand zhit., 1973), the residence of the president and the government in Cotonou. Ofits. French. In the administrative relation the country is divided into 6 departments (1970) which in turn consist from suprefektur and districts.
The most part of the territory of the country is occupied by the plateau, on Yu. — seaside lowland. Climate on the lowland equatorial, with two rainy seasons. Annual amount of precipitation of 800 — 1300 mm. On S. of the country climate ekvatorialnomussonny. An annual amount of precipitation — 1000 — 2000 mm. In January average t ° apprx. 24 °, in July 30 °. B. — the developing agrarian country with low level of industrialization.
Dagomeytsa together with related ethnic groups make 58% of the population. In the cities there live also Europeans (generally French), Syrians, Lebanese, etc. Zhit vital rates for 1000. (1970 — 1975): birth rate — 49,9, the general mortality — 23,0, a natural increase — 26,9; child mortality — 109,6 on 1000 live-born. Average life expectancy 37,3 years (1961).
In structure of incidence of the population infectious and parasitic diseases prevail: malaria, amebiasis, bacillar dysentery, leprosy, pulmonary tuberculosis, whooping cough, meningococcal infections, chicken pox, measles, trypanosomiasis, filariasis, schistosomatosis, trachoma.
The central body of health care of the country is Min-in of health care. In 1973 in B. there were 54 hospitals on 3123 beds (1 bed on 932 inhabitants), including 6 general hospitals on 1377 beds, 31 centers of health care on 1128 beds, 1 tubercular hospital on 48 beds, 1 psychiatric-tsa on 9 beds, 1 leper colony on 42 beds, etc. Extra hospital help is given in 187 out-patient clinics. Are available to lay down. the centers and mobile groups to which fight against malaria and other infectious diseases is assigned.
In 1974 in the country 84 doctors worked (1 doctor on 36 071 zhit.), from them 75 in public service; besides, there were 11 assistants to doctors, 8 dentists, 26 druggists, 61 midwifes, 235 nurses, 148 assistants to midwifes and 697 assistants to nurses. At un-those department medical - a dignity is open. sciences where train hospital attendants and auxiliary medical sisters; there is also a school for support nursing staff. Doctors get an education abroad. The budget of health care in 1970 made 11,9% of the nation-wide budget.
Bibliography: Draft of the program budget for 1976 and 1977 financial years, page 408, Geneva, WHO, 1975; Demographic yearbook 1970, p. 119, N. Y., 1971; World Health Statistics Annual 1971, v. 3, p. 47 a. o., Genfcve, 1975; World Health Statistics Annual 1972, at. 1, p. 1, Genfcve, 1975; World Health Statistics Report, v. 28, p. 429, 1975.