BELLADONNA (Atropa) — large perennial herbaceous plant this. solanaceous (Solanaceae). Is a source of receiving a number of the drugs possessing m-holinoblokiruyushchim action (see. Cholinolytic substances ). The most widespread types To. in a moderate zone are a belladonna ordinary (Atropa belladonna L.; synonym: belladonna, sleepy stupor) and belladonna Caucasian (Atropa caucasica Kreyer). Both look To. have a many-domed rhizome with large branchy roots. Stalks are thick, juicy, up to 2 m high. Leaves are next, in pairs pulled together, elliptic, ovoid or oblong and ovoid, to a top pointed, tselnokrayny, with a short scape, thin, fragile, green or brownish-green, from below lighter; dl. leaves to 20 cm of j width is up to 12 cm. Flowers single, drooping, on the short pedicels leaving bosoms of leaves (fig). The cup is five-gear, a nimbus correct, tubular with 5 brown-violet blades. Blossoming in June — July. A fruit — bilocular, brilliant, black, juicy, polyspermous berry size about cherry. Seeds roundish, black, flat. The belladonna ordinary is widespread in Ukraine, in Moldova, the Crimea, Western Europe. The belladonna Caucasian is eurysynusic in the Krasnodar and Stavropol regions, and also in various Regions of Caucasus and in Iran. In a tropical zone other look grows To. — Atropa acuminata Roy differing in yellow flowers.
Effective agents To. alkaloids of a tropane row among which the basic is are Hyoscyaminum (see). In the course of allocation from raw materials Hyoscyaminum partially turns into dextroizomer and forms, thus, racemic substance — atropine (see). Except Hyoscyaminum, in To. contain Scopolaminum (see) and its isomer hyoscine, apoatropin and its isomer belladonine, and also N-metilpirrolin and N-metilpirrolidin. The specified alkaloids contain in all parts of a plant, however in the greatest numbers find them in leaves (0,14 — 1,2%) and roots (0,4 — 1,3%) To. As medicinal raw materials for receiving drugs use preferential the sheet K. (folium Belladonnae; GFH, joint venture. Б).
Alkaloids K. m-holinoblokiruyushchimi have properties. In this regard drugs K. have atropinopodobny effect.
Apply drugs K. hl. obr. as antispasmodics at the peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum, cholelithiasis, bronchial asthma and other diseases which are followed by spasms of smooth muscles of internals. Side effects, contraindications to use, a picture of poisoning with drugs K. and measures of assistance the same, as at atropine (see).
To drugs K. tincture and extracts belong (dense and dry).
Tincture of a belladonna (Tinctura Belladonnae; GFH, joint venture. B) — transparent liquid of greenish or reddish-brown color with a peculiar smell, bitter taste; contains 0,027 — 0,033% of the sum of alkaloids.
Appoint inside (the adult 5 — 10 drops to reception, to children on 1 — 5 thaw depending on age). The highest doses for adults: one-time 0,5 ml (23 drops), daily 1,5 ml (70 drops).
Form of release: in bottles on 10 ml.
Extract of a belladonna dense (Extractum Belladonnae spissum; GFH, joint venture. B) — heavy body of dark-brown color, peculiar smell; contains 1,4 — 1,6% of the sum of alkaloids.
Appoint inside 0,01 — 0,02 g to reception.
The highest doses for adults inside: one-time 0,05 g, daily 0,15 g.
Is a part of various combined dosage forms.
Extract of a belladonna dry (Extractum Belladonnae siccum; GFH, joint venture. B) — powder of brown or light-brown color with a slight smell and a peculiar taste; contains 0,7 — 0,8% of the sum of alkaloids.
Is a part of the combined dosage forms.
The highest doses for adults inside: one-time 0,1 g, daily 0,3 g.
Extracts K. are a part of the following combined drugs: the tablets «Bellataminal» (a synonym of Bellaspon), «Becarbonum», «Bellalgin», «Bellasthesinum», «Bepasal», «Besalolum», etc., and also in structure of candles of Anuzol (Suppositoria «Anusolum») and Betiol (Suppositoria «Bethiolum»).
Powder from leaves To. is a part of collecting antiasthmatic (Species antiasthmaticae; GFH, joint venture. B), which is issued in the form of powder or the special Asthmatolum cigarettes.
Drugs K. and the dosage forms supporting them keep with precaution in well corked container.
See also Cholinolytic substances .
Bibliography: Muravyeva D. A. Pharmacognosy, page 314, M., 1978; Turova A. D. Medicinal plants of the USSR and their use, page 77, M., 1974.
P. P. Denisenko.