BELIZE (former British Honduras) — possession of Great Britain in Central America. The territory — 23 thousand sq.km. The population — 130 thousand people (1973). Adm. the center — Belmopan (apprx. 3 thousand zhit. at the end of 1972). Ofnts. language — English.
B. under the constitution which became effective since January 1, 1964 has internal self-government. Great Britain to B. is presented by the governor, questions of foreign policy, national defense and internal security enter competence to-rogo. Legislature — National assembly; executive power is carried out by the cabinet.
The most part of the territory — the low plain abounding with lakes and lagoons. On Yu. — mountains Maya. The climate is tropical passatny. Average monthly temperature from 25 to 27 °. Rainfall apprx. 2000 mm a year.
B. — the agrarian underdeveloped country. The sugarcane, a citrus, pineapples, bananas, rice are cultivated. In the woods preparation of valuable tropical breeds is conducted (especially mahogany and a resinous pine).
About 75% of the population of B. — Blacks and mulattos, apprx. 13% — Indians of the Maya. The most part of the population lives on the coast. In structure of the population the young age prevails: 18% of the population — children up to 5 years, 44% — to 15. Zhit the main demographic indicators for 1000. in 1970: birth rate — 37,1, the general mortality — 6,0, a natural increase — 31,1. Child mortality — 50,7 on 1000 live-born. 35% of the general mortality and 59% of all cases of death of children under 5 years are connected with infectious and parasitic diseases. In 1970 dysentery, measles, whooping cough, malaria, infectious hepatitis, tuberculosis most often were registered. The avitaminosis, anemias and other diseases connected with insufficiency of food are widespread.
The country is divided into 6 areas. In each area there is a hospital, in a cut the doctor and nursing staff work. In the regional city the medical officer and the nurse of public health care providing medical aid to women and children work. Rural health services are presented by the centers of health care in which nurses work.
Responsibility for medical - a dignity. service it is assigned to the Minister of Health. In the country the program of fight against malaria and tuberculosis is carried out; vaccination against smallpox is obligatory.
In 1972 in B. there were 13 sick-lists establishment on 641 beds (49 beds on 10 000 zhit.), including 606 beds in 11 state hospitals. Hospitals were distributed as follows: 5 — the general type (310 beds), 3 — rural (68 beds), 3 medical centers (72 beds), 1 — tubercular (52 beds) and 1 — psychiatric (139 beds). In 1972 in the country there were 29 centers for protection of motherhood and the childhood. The extra hospital help was private medical practitioners, polyclinic departments of hospitals and 22 centers of health care in which nurses-midwifes work.
In 1972 in B. 41 doctors worked (1 doctor for 2930 zhit.), from them 26 in public institutions, 3 dentists, 1 druggist, 29 druggists, 75 nurses-midwifes. Nurses and midwifes prepare at hospital in Belize. A course of nurses — 3 years, midwifes and assistants to nurses — 1 year.
In 1970 the budget of health care made 2447 thousand dollars of Belize (19 dollars per capita).
Bibliography: The fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1065 — 1968), page 188, Geneva, WHO, 1973; Draft of the program budget for 1976 and 1977 financial years, Ofits. documents of WHO, No. 220, page 476, Geneva, WHO, 1975.
E. V. Galakhov.