BEKHTEREV Vladimir Mikhaylovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
BEKHTEREV Vladimir Mikhaylovich

BEKHTEREV Vladimir Mikhaylovich (1857 — 1927) — the Soviet neurologist, the psychiatrist and the psychologist, the morphologist and the physiologist of a nervous system. After the termination of medicochirurgical academy (St. Petersburg) in 1878 it is left at department of psychiatry of I. P. Merzheevsky. In 1881 protected dokt, the thesis. In 1884 it is sent abroad where worked for E. Du Bois-Reymond, V. Vundt, T. Meynert. Since 1885 managed department of psychiatry in Kazan where founded clinic and laboratory, Kazan about-in neuropathologists and psychiatrists and the Neurologic Bulletin magazine. Since 1893 headed department of neuropathology and psychiatry of VMA. Having organized neurosurgical department, V. M. Bekhterev laid the foundation for this section of surgery. In 1908 organized Psychoneurological in-t. For progressive public performances V. M. Bekhterev was exposed to prosecutions of the imperial authorities. After Great October socialist revolution took the part of the Soviet power and conducted a lot of work in the field of health care, educations and the organizations of science. In 1918 Ying t on studying of a brain and mental activity based.

V. M. Bekhterev possesses over 600 scientific works. Researches in the field of studying of structure of a brain gave the brand new facts having world value. Kernels and conduction paths in a brain are opened for them, the doctrine about conduction paths of a spinal cord and functional anatomy of a brain is created; the anatomo-physiological basis of balance and orientation in space and function of a thalamus is established; the centers of the movement and secretion of internals are open in a cerebral cortex; it is proved that motive fields of a cerebral cortex are a basis of individually acquired, learned movements. Together with employees developed techniques of sochetatelnodvigatelny reflexes at animals and the person; opened a number of normal and pathological reflexes; it described painful symptoms and syndromes (see. Bekhtereva reflexes, symptoms ), many devices are designed.

V. M. Bekhterev developed objective methods of studying of psychological development of children. It made the first attempt to objectively study influence of collective on mentality and behavior of the person. It allocated such diseases as a painful oderevenelost of a backbone (see. Bekhtereva disease ), choreic paduchy, postapoplectic ge-mitoniya, syphilitic multiple sclerosis, acute cerebellar ataxy of alcoholics, etc.

In the field of psychiatry V. M. Bekhterev one of the first beginnings to study a question of psychopathies and circular psychosis, of a ratio of nervous and mental diseases, psychopathology, clinic and a pathogeny of hallucinations; described a number of forms of persuasive states; various manifestations of mental automatism; allocated a somatophrenia as an independent disease. Into treatment of psychological diseases it entered combinative and reflex therapy of neurosises, alcoholism, psychotherapy by method of derivation and re-education, collective psychotherapy.

V. M. Bekhterev took part in preparation of 1 prod. BME was also an editor of articles on reflexology.

Works: Experience of clinical trial of body temperature at some forms of sincere diseases, a yew., SPb., 1881; Conduction paths back and a brain, p.1 — 2, SPb., 1896 — 1898; Neuropathological and psychiatric observations, t. 1 — 2, SPb., 1900 — 1910; Bases of the doctrine about functions of a brain, t. 1 — 7, SPb., 1903 — 1907; Mentality and life, SPb., 1904; Objective psychology, century 1 — 3, SPb., 1907 — 1912; Suggestion and its role in public life, SPb., 1908; Hypnosis, suggestion and psychotherapy, SPb., 1911; The General diagnosis of diseases of a nervous system, p.1 — 2, SPb., 1911 — 1915; General fundamentals of reflexology of the person, 1st prod., Pg., 1918, 4 prod., M. — L., 1928; Collective reflexology, Pg., 1921; The Brain and its activity, M. — L., 1928.

Bibliography: Astvatsaturov M. I., V. M. Bekhterev as neurologist, Saturday., posvyashch. To Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev, to the 40 anniversary of professorial activity (1885 — 1925), L., 1926; V. M. Bekhterev and modern psychoneurology (Vsesoyup. nauch. konf., posvyashch. to the 100 anniversary since the birth of V. M. Bekhterev), JI., 1957; Munipovv. M, V. M. Bekhterev, M., 1969; Myasishchev V. N. Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev, in book: People of the Russian science, under the editorship of I. V. Kuznetsov, page 592, M., 1963; it, V. M. Bekhterev, remarkable scientist, doctor, teacher, public figure, L. — M, 1953; Osipov V. P. Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev, M., 1947; Tekutyev F. S. A historical sketch of department and clinic of sincere and nervous diseases at Army medical college, page 227, SPb., 1898, bibliogr.; Filimonov I. N. Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev (1857 — 1957), Klien, medical, t. 35, Ks 3, page 3, 1957; X and N I - to about in V. V., V. M. Bekhterev (1857 — 1927), the bibliographic index with summaries, M., 1946; Yudin T. Sketches of history of domestic psychiatry, page 122, etc., M., 1951.

V. N. Myasishchev.