V. M. Bekhterev is the Russian neuropathologist and the psychiatrist, 1857 — 1927.
1. The scapularhumeral reflex — is caused by percussion of an inner edge of a shovel, is expressed by reduction of a shoulder and rotation of its knaruzha; treats periosteal reflexes.
2. The reflex from a big spit — at percussion of a big spit occurs straightening of a leg (reduction of a big gluteus); at a research of the patient shall stand or lie, having slightly bent the studied leg.
3. An exhaling reflex — at percussion of cartilages of the lower edges and the lower end of a breast the exhaling movements appear.
4. The acromial reflex — at percussion of an acromial shoot occurs bending of a forearm, sometimes a brush and fingers.
5. The circular reflex — at percussion of bones of a nose, temporal and frontal bones is noted an easy smykaniye of a palpebral fissure and partial reduction of a lower part of a circular muscle of an eye.
The research fiziol, reflexes matters for definition of a condition of the corresponding reflex arcs.
Pathological reflexes at defeat of a pyramidal way.
1. A back and-foot reflex of Mendel — Bekhtereva — at percussion the hammer in the IV—V area of plusnevy bones bends toes.
2. Carpal and manual the reflex — at percussion of a back of the hand occurs bending of fingers.
3. Bekhtereva — Jacobson a reflex — at percussion of the back of a radiocarpal joint or the bottom of a beam bone is marked out bending of fingers, and sometimes and forearms.
Bekhtereva symptoms are observed at various morbid conditions.
1. An early symptom back tabes — a hyposensitivity to pressure of muscles and nerves of the lower extremities, hl. obr. gastrocnemius muscles and subnodal nerve.
2. At sciatic neuralgia — emergence of sharp pain in subnodal area at bystry straightening of a leg in a knee joint (excessive extension of the affected nerve) and impossibility to extend a healthy leg at a pulling of a sore leg.
3. At massive brain strokes are observed so-called figurative, or replacing, the movements — in attempts to make the movement by the paralyzed extremity of the patient carries out the relevant movements by a healthy extremity.
4. At defeat of certain departments of the left cerebral hemisphere at right-handed persons the parasymbolia, an alalia is observed — the patient does not understand the speech turned to it, but itself speaks, pronouncing incoherent words (see. Aphasia ).
5. Reaction of excitement at a tetany — the small current causing scarcely noticeable reduction of muscles at repeated short circuits gives gradually amplifying reductions passing then in a tetanus of a muscle; the same effect is gained at a transmission of a galvanic current along nervous trunks.
6. At cerebral paralyzes pseudomelia paraesthetica — feeling of movements in the paralyzed extremities is observed sometimes; is explained by pathological irritation of conductors of muscle sense.
7. A symptom of an organic hemiplegia — a great toe sign: at extension of the II—IV fingers of the brush which is in a condition of a contracture in a thumb the movements in the form of bending and reduction appear; at the return reception the thumb is unbent and taken away.
8. At a myatonia — the so-called muscular roller perverted — tightening of a muscle at first causes formation of deepening on site of compression.
9. At angiotrofonevroza it is observed akroeritroz — painless permanent reddening of hands and feet.
10. At pathological processes in covers of the basis of a brain Bekhtereva a malar symptom is observed — easy percussion on a zygoma causes morbidity and a grimace.
11. The Oderevenelost of a backbone — see. Bekhtereva disease .
12. A hemochorea — see. Chorea .
Bibliography: Bekhterev V. M. Chosen works, page 233, etc., M., 1954, bibliogr.