BEES (Apoidea) — the superfamily of hymenopterous insects combining about 30 thousand types (in the USSR about 3500 types).
Items are distributed everywhere where there are flowering plants. All types of P. are useful as pollinators of plants. Melliferous P. use for receiving honey, wax, a beebread, propolis, the uterine milk, apitoxin applied including in to lay down. to practice.
The sizes of a body at the majority of types of P. within 1 — 1,5 cm. The body of the majority of types is covered with dense hairs. The oral device of the gnawing licking type. On back legs of the worker P. there are devices in the form of a brush and a small basket for collecting and transfer of pollen. There are poisonous glands and a sting. For bringing up of larvae of P. build of wax of cell in which collect caches (honey and a beebread).
Depending on biol, P.'s features divide into 3 groups: single, parasitic and public. The vast majority of types — single Items. Each female builds a nest of one or several cells in which there is a development of females and males. Parasitic P. lay eggs in cells of insect owner. Public P. live big «families» in which polymorphism — distinctions in a structure of a body and functions between female individuals — a uterus is pronounced, P. workers and drones (fig.) therefore the honey-bee colony is biol, unit, in a cut all individuals are interconnected and are not capable to independent existence. Among public types of P. P. is most widespread melliferous, or house (Apis mellifera L.). One family of melliferous P. consists of a uterus, 60 — 80 thousand workers of P. (females with underdeveloped generative organs) and several hundred males (drones) appearing only in the summer. Function of a uterus — an otkladka of eggs (to 1500 — 2000 in days). From oosperms depending on the size of cells of cells and the mode of feeding either a uterus, or P. workers, and from a neofruit of the opened eggs — drones develop. P. workers build cells, collect nectar and pollen, process them into honey and a beebread, bring up larvae, protect a beehive and support in it a certain microclimate, replace an old female young etc. For feeding of larvae and a uterus in sialadens of workers of P. the special secret — uterine milk — having valuable nutritious properties is developed. From it produce drug the apilak (see) used in medical practice and the perfumery industry. On an abdomen of workers of P. there are sites of chitin (so-called zerkalets) for which surfaces from wax glands the wax used by P. for construction of cells is emitted. Beeswax (see) goes for preparation of foundation and is a part of medical ointments, plasters, creams. Walls of a beehive and P.'s crack are covered with sticky resinous substance of a siropoobrazny consistence — so-called propolis. Propolis possesses antibacterial action and is long since used in traditional medicine. For a summer season P.'s family is capable to prepare to 130 — 180 kg of honey. The bee honey (processed by bees nectar of flowers) goes to food, and also is used as dietary and to lay down. means (see. Honey ). The secret allocated by threadlike gland of the stinging device P. — apitoxin (see) — has toxic effect on an organism; it is also used in to lay down. to practice.
In the middle of the summer in a beehive a young uterus appears. Some days before it the old uterus with a part of working bees leaves a beehive and finds for itself the new place (an empty beehive, a hollow of a tree). At the end of summer the young uterus makes marriage flight with drones, to-rogo insemination results from it. Sperm remains in a seminal receptacle during all life of a uterus; eggs are impregnated during passing on an oviduct. In the winter drones perish, and P. workers (whose number is reduced to 10-15 thousand) together with a uterus gather in compact skein and eat the prepared reserves of honey.
Bibliography: Vasilyeva E. N. and Halifmai I. A. Pchela, M., 1981; Kuzmina K. A. Treatment by bee honey and poison, Saratov, 1981; M of l and d e-N about in S. Med and medolecheniyo, the lane with bolg., Sofia, 1971; The Bee and a beehive, the lane with English, under the editorship of T. I. Gubina, M., 1969; G. F. Biologiya's Rams of a honey-bee colony, M., 1961; it, Anatomy and physiology of honey bees, M., 1968; Frisch K. From life of bees, the lane with it is mute., M., 1966
S. N. Zarechnaya.