BEAN PRODUCTS — seeds of bean plants from a subfamily of papilionaceous (Papilionaceae). From B. the item in food of the person most widely use peas, haricot, soy, beans, lentil, a peanut, to a lesser extent a rank, Vick. Also oil from seeds of a peanut, soy, etc. Krom of mature seeds of bean cultures is eaten, eat young ovaries of fruits — the beans called by a pod or a shovel and also seeds in an immature state which use in a fresh and tinned look. Nutrition value of some B. of the item is given in tab. 1.
Bps have considerable nutritional value thanks to the high content of carbohydrates and proteins, and in soy, besides, there is a lot of fat. Protein B. of the item on the amino-acid structure is less full-fledged, than animal protein, however is richer with irreplaceable amino acids, than proteins of breadstuff. Especially it belongs to protein of soy. The amino-acid structure of the most widespread B. of the item is presented in tab. 2.
Fat B. of the item contains many polyunsaturated fatty acids and lecithin, the number of the last in peas of 900 mg of %, in haricot — 650 mg of %, in lentil — 920 mg of %, in soy — 1500 — 3000 mg of %.
Carbohydrates B. of the item consist preferential of starch. Existence of significant amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose complicates razvarivany B. of the item at culinary processing, causes irritation of a mucous membrane of a stomach and intestines, interferes with bystry splitting of starch which is exposed in intestines to fermentation that promotes emergence of a meteorism. Removal of covers, B.'s use of the item in the form of puree and soups reduces processes of gas generation in intestines.
At good comprehensibility of carbohydrates and fat B. of the item digestion of their proteins does not exceed 70%. On digestibility these squirrels belong to slowly split pepsin and trypsin because of contents in B. of the item of inhibitors of proteinases.
The composition of vitamins and mineral substances B. of the item is various: so, peas contain 0,06 mg of % of carotene, 0,72 mg of % of thiamin, 0,15 mg of % of Riboflavinum, 2,4 mg of % nicotinic to - you, in haricot — 0,02 mg of % of carotene, 0,54 mg of % of thiamin, 0,18 mg of % of Riboflavinum, 2,1 mg of % nicotinic to - you, in soy — 0,08 mg of % of carotene, 1,0 mg of % of thiamin, 0,3 mg of % of Riboflavinum, 2,1 mg of % nicotinic to - you. Green B. can be the item an essential source ascorbic to - you and carotene. Besides, B. items contain the betaine and sincaline participating in a lipometabolism. Mineral composition of most of B. of the item differs in the high content of potassium (1000 mg of %) and gland (6 — 8 mg of %). Content of phosphorus (in mg of %) in peas — 377, in haricot — 514, the content of calcium (in mg of %) in peas — 64, in haricot — 160.
In B. items, except for soy, green peas, pods of haricot and peas, prevail in an ash content of substance with an acid valency, i.e. items exert B. some impact on acid-base equilibrium, causing shifts towards acidosis.
From B. and. soy (Soja hispida) is sharply emitted on the chemical composition and nutrition value. Very high content of protein in soya beans, rather good ratio of amino acids of soy protein, good productivity and low cost of this product do soy by very perspective crop.
From soy cook various foodstuff — oil, milk, cottage cheese, flour, «meat». The soy deodorized flour is added in bakery and pasta for the purpose of increase in amount of protein to them and improvement of its amino-acid structure.
B.'s quality of the item shall meet the requirements of standards. Humidity of peas shall not exceed 14 — 15%, haricots — 20%, lentils — 17%. Weed impurity is allowed in number of no more than 0,5 — 1,0%, mineral impurity there have to be no more than 0,1%. Infectiousness is not allowed by granary wreckers.
Some B.' consumption the item (haricots, Wicky, ranks) sometimes causes diseases like food poisonings.
The poisonings connected with consumption of crude haricot and insufficiently thermally processed bean flour are described (see. Favism ).
The chemical nature of the toxic beginning of haricot cannot be considered finalized, however it is known that some grades of haricot contain fazeolunatin, belonging to nitrilglikozida. I dovity properties of haricot completely disappear at its sufficient heat treatment.
Wicky's seeds contain two glycosides — vicine and vicianin, on the properties close to dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside. At their splitting in went. - kish. a path it is allocated hydrocianic to - that, edges also are caused by virulence of seeds. From Wicky's kinds only white-seeded Vika can be considered as a harmless food crop.
A rank — the eurysynusic bean plant cultivated by hl. obr. on a forage an animal. Poisoning with seeds ranks is called a lathyrism (see). In literature a number of flashes of a lathyrism at people and animals is described. Believe that virulence ranks is caused by the seeds of certain grades of Wicky littering it.
Table 1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CALORIC CONTENT of the ASSIMILABLE EDIBLE PART of PEAS, HARICOT AND SOY (on 100 g of an edible part of a product)
Table 2. AMINO-ACID COMPOSITION of PROTEINS of PEAS, HARICOT, SOY (In grams on &100nbsp; &gnbsp; product)
Bibliography: Pokrovsky A. A. Biochemical justifications of development of products of the increased biological value, Vopr, food, t. 23, No. 1, page 3, 1964, bibliogr.; Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value of foodstuff, - under the editorship of F. E. Budagyan, M., 1961; Sh and r both N and E. G. Zerno and grain products, in book: Gigabyte. food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 7, M., 1971.
V. A. Kudasheva.