BATHROOM (rest room). Distinguish At. individual (room), the general (in institutions and news agency the enterprises), public (on streets, stadiums, beaches p etc.) and domestic. At. can be channeled and black fox lizovanny.
The best look At. in the presence of the sewerage (see) the water closet (a water rest room) is. Enter its equipment: toilet bowl (reception bowl) and flushing tank. Toilet bowls make of semi-porcelain or faience with a seat from a tree or plastic. To a toilet bowl water is brought through a washing tank. It eliminates danger of the return suction in water pipes of dirty water. Sovr. type is low put washing tank of large volume with a wide offtake pipe. Also the crane with the back pressure valve is used, the design to-rogo excludes the return suction of dirty water and allows to wash out a thicket directly from a water supply system. Toilet bowls of all types have hydraulic gates (siphons) — devices for prevention of penetration into the room of hectare call from Caen of lizatsionny network.
Individual At. in residential buildings shall have the exhaust ventilation with a natural draft (directly from the room At.), and also natural or artificial lighting not to have from the related message with inhabited and rooms, kitchen; area them not less than 0,8; <1,2 — 1,5 m.
The general and public At. equip usual and faience floor un a nt deputy and with emat an irovanny inner surface and with so-called inflows for a foot of legs, to-rye establish in a floor on the concrete foundation, and also urinals. From urinals (tray, wall, floor) the best in a gigabyte. the relation floor with automatic washing. A floor and walls on height of 1,8 m in such At. spread a ceramic tile.
In hostels, hotels, the multi-storey industrial enterprises, etc. At. have on each floor. The distance from the most remote place of stay of people shall not exceed 75 m. For internal finishing (floors, walls on height of 1,8 m) the moisture resistant materials of light tones (floors with a nonskid surface) allowing easy cleaning use. The general and public At. shall be heated, have direct natural (a light factor of not less V8) and artificial lighting, and also ventilation (frequency rate of exchange of air accept on an extract 50 m3/hour on one toilet bowl and 25 m3/hour on one urinal). Windows, window leaves, openings of ventilating channels for protection against flies shall drag on grids. Norms of providing dignity. devices: in hostels men's — on
15 — 20 people 1 toilet bowl and 1 individual urinal (or 0,6 m of the tray urinal on 1 toilet bowl), in women's —
1 toilet bowl on 12 people and 1 gigabyte. a cabin on the 50th persons.
Public At. build in places of accumulation of a large number of people. Radius of service no more than 500 — 600.
The most well-planned and answering a gigabyte. and to esthetic requirements channeled public At. build with the closed cabins: the size of cabins is 1,2x0,85 m.
Toilet bowls in them faience, flushing tanks are isolated to certain rooms behind a back wall of cabins (a so-called sanitary corridor) that eliminates formation of drops on walls of tanks owing to condensation of evaporations. At. equip exhaust and positive-pressure ventilation. Visitors At. provide with objects for shoe-polish, hangers for clothes, toilet paper, perfumery, etc. All public bathrooms shall be provided with wash basins.
To public At. belong also mobile At., established on the automobile trailer. They are used in places of temporary accumulation of people: during the mass processions (are resolved on the way of the movement of a column, on building sites during construction, etc.).
At. by the ships (a so-called latrine) usually build as public At.; they are equipped with reception bowls with group automatic washing or usual toilet bowls.
Internal finishing of the water closet (glazed or plastic tiles, an oil paint for walls, linoleum, asphalt or ceramic tiles for a floor), and also material, from to-rogo are made a dignity. devices (porcelain, faience), shall create necessary conditions for cleaning and cleaning of the room. Epi-demiol. advantage of the water closet connected with sewer system consists in elimination of a possibility of pollution by sewage of the soil, water sources, and also transfer by flies of activators inf. diseases.
At export system of cleaning of the inhabited places (see). At. build three types: lyuftklozeta (i.e. air rest rooms), pudrklozeta (torfklo-zeta) and cold (domestic) U. Nailuchshim from them is a side play rest room — warm At., placed in the building (it is better out of its main dimensions). Its key design feature — existence of the ventilating (exhaust) channel included in a flue of the stove or an oven of the room adjacent with At. Such constantly warmed channel creates good draft with the movement of air from a cabin and a vygreb in the outside atmosphere. Lyuftklozeta it is recommended to build in 1 — 2-storey buildings. In not channeled inhabited places of the first, second and third climatic areas (see Climatology medical) apartments, hostels and other public buildings, as a rule, shall have lyuftklozeta (out of the main dimensions of the building). In the fourth climatic area the same buildings shall be provided with rooms for the device in them the channeled bathrooms.
Pudrklozeta (torfklozeta) can be warm (in buildings) or domestic: receivers in the first case — portable (usually a bucket with a cover), in the second — a drawer (metal or wooden with a metal upholstery). Excrement in them fills up (automatically or a scoop) with the moisture absorbing substances (peat, ashes, the dry earth). Pudrklozeta can be recommended for one-storey buildings in housing estates, rural areas and t. II.
Domestic, usually not washing. At. build in individual estates, hostels, barracks far from sources of water supply and premises. At. it is desirable to have on a slope of the mountain or out of the blue on a mark below a water intaking well. Distance in sandy soil from At. to a water intaking well not less than 15 m. The platform, on a cut is located At., shall be dry, well trained and to lie higher than the level of flood waters. A land part (cabins) such At. for large objects build capitally (a brick, a felling) with densely driven automatically closed doors (see. Removed).
At. shall be projected, be under construction and be operated taking into account relevant requirements Construction Norms and Regulations and «Health regulations of the device and the maintenance of public bathrooms».
Bibliography: Arzamasova 3. And.
, etc. Sanitary cleaning of the cities, M., 1966; V. M. Potters, Pro-cops V. A. and Rakhov G. M. The current sanitary inspection behind residential and public buildings, Kiev, 1976;
There is h Rutting and r at to E. I. Constructions of underground filtering of household drain waters, Kiev, 1967; about N e, the Small sewerage, Kiev, 1970; Kirpichnikov A. A. Cleaning of households, M., 1966; C and p r and -
I am V. I., Shevchenko Yu. L. N. and Borimsky V. K. Sanitary cleaning of settlements, Kiev, 1973; Shevchenko Yu. JI. and Dmitren-k about T. D. Reference book on sanitary cleaning of the cities and settlements, Kiev, 1978., E. I. Goncharuk.