From Big Medical Encyclopedia

BATHING — hygienic and hydrotherapeutic treatment-and-prophylactic procedure. Distinguish To. in natural reservoirs (in the sea, the rivers, lakes) and in the artificial pools (closed and opened with sweet and mineral water).

Influence of bathing on an organism

Influence To. on an organism in fresh indoor pools it is caused by a thermal factor, hydrostatic pressure and the massing influence of water on a body surface. At To. in open reservoirs and pools influence of the atmosphere and solar radiation joins the listed factors. At To. in the sea, the estuary or the pool with mineral water along with it also the chemical factor — structure and concentration of the salts dissolved in water matters. At last, at all types To. essential value has physical. activity in water — intensity and the nature of swimming movements.

The main irritant at To. the thermal factor is, the most noticeable shifts in an organism happen in heat exchange, and especially expressed, than more difference between water temperature and bodies of the person. However expressiveness of thermoregulatory shifts at To. depends as well on an initial funkts, a state and rubbed-moadaptatsionnykh abilities of an organism.

Water immersion causes priming defense reaction of an organism on cooling which is shown vasoconstriction of skin and a nek-eye strengthening of inflow of blood to internals. At the same time the rhythm of cordial reductions becomes frequent, the ABP raises, breath becomes more frequent and less deep, there is a feeling of a fever. The subsequent, secondary, reaction on To. it is expressed by expansion of superficial vessels and more strengthened outflow of blood from internals, warming and a pinkness of skin. Reductions of heart become more rare, breath — more rare and deep, the ABP decreases a little. Both reactions — a peculiar gymnastics of vessels therefore bystry water immersion is a good way of a hardening; at slow immersion heatloss increases and the feeling of a fever is more long. Long To. and overcooling is led to negative reaction — vessels remain expanded, the tone of their walls decreases, the blood stream is slowed down, bathing feels feeling of a fever, skin becomes sinyushnokrasny, the health worsens. Such reaction indicates inadequacy of the procedure funkts, to a condition of an organism.

Correctly carried out procedures K., especially in open reservoirs, improvement of neurohumoral and exchange processes is promoted, by functions of cardiovascular, respiratory systems and mechanisms of thermal control. Repeated To. train adaptation and compensatory mechanisms, stimulate protective forces of an organism.

Indications and Contraindications

Indications: it is not higher than I degree's of a disease of cardiovascular system at a circulatory unefficiency (an idiopathic hypertensia of I — IIA of stages); atherosclerosis without frustration of coronal and cerebral circulation; rheumatism in an inactive phase, heart diseases and a miokarditichesky cardiosclerosis, an obliterating endarteritis; funkts, diseases of a nervous system; diseases of a metabolism (obesity, gout), etc. At purpose of procedures K. the previous training is considered: for bathing earlier in open reservoirs of the indication extend, for not bathing — are narrowed.

Indications for To. kardiol, patients abilities of the blood circulatory system are specified by definition funkts.

Indications for are rather limited To. in open reservoirs sowing. districts of the country, napr, on the Riga beach, the coast of the Gulf of Finland, etc. Extra care is necessary at appointment To. at the water temperature which is not exceeding 20 ° in all districts of the country the patient with an idiopathic hypertensia with coronary atherosclerosis: as a result of considerable fluctuations of the ABP crises, brain and coronary vasomotor spasms are possible. If within 5 — 6 min. after the procedure at such patients initial indicators of the ABP, pulse and breath are not normalized, To. it is necessary to cancel. At the combined mitral defects with dominance of a stenosis in process To. considerable load of the right heart owing to hydrostatic pressure, strengthenings of a venous blood-groove and increase in venous pressure therefore To is observed. such patients even without disturbance of blood circulation it is limited. To. apply also to a hardening of an organism, increase in resistance to catarrhal diseases.

Contraindications: the circulatory unefficiency is higher than the I degree, atherosclerosis with the phenomena of coronary insufficiency and frustration of cerebral circulation, a hyperthyroidism, acute inflammatory diseases, malignant new growths, the second half of pregnancy.

A technique

At appointment To. in open reservoirs use three modes of exposure. Duration To. on the mode No. 1 up to 2 — 3 min. at water temperature 20 — 22 °, up to 5 — 7 min. at water temperature 24 — 25 °, up to 10 min. at water temperature 26 °. On the mode No. 2: up to 3 — 4 min. at water temperature 18 — 19 °, up to 4 — 6 min. at water temperature 20 — 22 °, up to 12 — 15 min. at water temperature 24 — 25e. The modes No. 1 and 2 are used for patients, and the mode No. 3 — generally for almost healthy people for the purpose of a hardening. On the mode No. 3 time To. from 2 to 4 min. at water temperature 16 °, up to 6 min. at water temperature 18 °, up to 10 min. at 20e etc.

The preparatory period to bathing includes usually preliminary rubdowns by water to a belt, then an okunaniye within 3 — 5 days. Similar preparation is especially necessary for the unexercised people of advanced age, children and persons who arrived from geographical zones, contrast on climate. At children quicker, than at adults, there comes disturbance of thermal balance therefore they shall begin to bathe at water temperature not lower than 22 — 24 °. Optimum duration To. is defined not only by the water temperature, but also temperature, humidity, speed of the movement of air, intensity of solar radiation. To. appoint 1 — 2 time a day a days, free from reception of mineral bathtubs or any thermal procedures or not earlier than in 3 hours after their reception. During the hot period of year To. are recommended early morning and evening hours. To. unacceptably directly after a solar bathtub. Before a solar bathroom later To. it is necessary to be rubbed off dry or to dry in a shadow.

See also Balneotherapy , Hardening .

Bibliography: Bogutsky B. V., etc. Use of sea bathings for patients with cardiovascular diseases, Yalta, 1975; And in r and to about in N. A., etc. Sea bathings at an idiopathic hypertensia in resorts of the Black Sea coast of Krasnodar Krai, in book: Vopr. medical klimatol. and klimatoter. patients in resorts, under the editorship of A. A. Rekkandt, etc., page 127, Pyatigorsk, 1975; About l of e f and-r e of N to about V. T. In to - treatment, page 179, M., 1978, bibliogr is warm.; G a w of i k about w N. And. u. Romanow N. E. Thalassotherapie in den Kurorten der Schwarzmeerkiiste im Kaukasus, Z. Physiother., Bd 23, S. 245, 1971.

H. A. Gavrikov.