BARRACKS — the special residential building intended for accommodation of the military personnel of conscription service.
In the ancient time in military campaigns were built by forces of soldiers the camp with residential buildings, serving at the same time and to the purposes of defense. Detailed descriptions of such military camps built in Ancient Rome and Carthage remained. Construction capital To. began in 16 century and it is connected with emergence of regular armies. For the first time To. appeared in Turkey and in Spain. In 17 century in France on the project of the marshal Voban began to build brick To. to several floors for placement of a body. In them, except inhabited, there were administration premises, rooms for economic services (warehouses, kitchen, etc.).
In a gigabyte. the relation these barracks were unsatisfactory. In them, in particular, acervate accommodation of people took place, there were insufficient a natural ventilation and illumination.
In Russia under Peter I's decree since 1724 company and battalion settlements and the regimental yards were under construction. The last consisted of wooden log huts of 13,5 sq.m for placement the 4th persons. Mass construction To. began after introduction in 1874 of a general compulsory military service. In 1883 the Temporary barracks commission was created, edges developed the project stage To. on a company in the form of the one-storey wooden building and on battalion — stone two - or the three-storyed building.
In battalion To. on the first floor educational classes for companies, kitchen and the dining room, and on the second and third floors — premises were placed. Long before it To. of this kind were constructed in Livadia (1865) and Kerch (1873). They represented separate buildings with bedrooms and a number of utility rooms.
However To., constructed on the project of the Temporary barracks commission, had a number of shortcomings: in them there were no certain rooms for storage of weapon, personal belongings, and the kitchen located on the first floor contaminated air of premises on upper floors. Not completely answered a gigabyte. to requirements and a design To. Russian army of later construction. More successful on a dignity. - a gigabyte. to indicators were To., constructed on the project developed in 1913. However common faults mentioned To., sharply worsening their dignity. - a gigabyte. a state, were existence of the platoon sleeping rooms through passage which are not providing necessary conditions for rest, lack of auxiliary rooms for cleaning of weapon, footwear, clothes and storage of personal belongings, acervate accommodation of people. All this promoted high incidence among soldiers.
So, according to N. Kleptsov, in the Khamovniki barracks (Moscow, 1888 — 1894) in the divisions placed densely incidence almost for 18% exceeded incidence in the divisions placed in the best a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions.
In the Soviet Army barracks construction began since 1924. It was assumed as a basis To., counted on accommodation of battalion with the isolated room (floor) for each company. At the same time much attention was paid to creation more favorable a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions for occupations and good rest of staff. In such To. there was a wide (4) light side corridor used for creation of divisions. Each platoon had the certain sleeping room, and a company — the room for political mass work, the room for storage of weapon, a class and rooms a dignity. appointments (a wash basin, toilets, the place for shoe-polish, etc.). In 1926, and then in 1932 projects beskoridorny were developed To. various design with sleeping placements on a company. In the subsequent projects and construction To. in the Soviet Army it continued to be improved in the direction of creation optimum a dignity. - a gigabyte. conditions for staff of troops. It was recognized as the most reasonable to build generally To. stage type for porotny accommodation of battalion — with a water supply system, the sewerage, central heating, positive-pressure ventilation, the electric lighting and other equipment providing the best living conditions. Internal design of this To. allows to use sleeping rooms only for rest in the conditions of the maximum rest, and for day stay of soldiers classes, rooms for political mass work, etc. are provided.
The charter of internal service AF of the USSR approved by the Decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of July 30, 1975 in To. it is provided to have the following placements on each company: the Lenin room for carrying out political mass and cultural and educational work; sleeping rooms for staff of 2,5 — 4 m 2 and of 9 — 12 m 3 on one serviceman; the room for office of a company: the room for storage of weapon; the storeroom for storage of property of a company and personal belongings of soldiers and sergeants; the room for washing; the room (place) for cleaning of weapon; the room (place) for smoking and shoe-polish; the dryer for drying of regimentals and footwear; the room of consumer services where it is carried out the iron of regimentals, small repair of clothes and footwear, a hairstyle of hair, shaving, etc.
In everyone battalion To., except the specified rooms, rooms are allocated: for the commander of battalion and his deputies, the headquarters of battalion, for preparation for occupations, for meetings and rest of officers.
In wash basins install one crane (nipple) on five-seven people and on each company not less than two bathtubs with running water for washing of legs. In toilets equip one cabin (point) and one urinal on 10 — 12 persons.
Walls and ceilings of barracks rooms plaster and cover with glue white paint, and panels on height of 1,5 m paint an oil paint of light tones. Floors do of waterproof materials with small heat conductivity and sound conductivity (strong breeds of a tree, linoleum).
Beds place ranks not closer than 50 cm from outside walls, so that about each of them or two shifted together it was possible to put a bedside table, and between ranks of beds there was an empty seat for creation of divisions.
Natural ventilation of sleeping rooms is carried out in the summer through open windows, and in cold season — through window leaves and exhaust ventilating channels. For ensuring sufficient ventilation only through window leaves the relation of the area of window leaves to the area of a floor shall make no more as 1: 50. If To. equip with artificial forced ventilation, the last shall provide triple exchange of air within an hour (see. Ventilation ).
Heating devices (the central or oven heating) shall provide maintenance of temperature in sleeping rooms in cold season not lower than 18 °.
At oven heating (see) a fire chamber of furnaces finish to 20 hours, and in educational and other service premises — in 1 hour prior to the occupations or work. Sufficient natural illumination To. it is reached by respect for the established norms of the relation of the area of windows to the area of a floor depending on purpose of the room (1:8, 1: 12).
Artificial lighting To. it is divided on full and on duty. At full lighting illumination in sleeping and service premises shall make apprx. 50 lx, in Lenin rooms — 150 lx. Full artificial lighting is supported with nightfall and till the dawn at an entrance in To., in rooms for storage of weapon, corridors, on ladders, in toilets. In bedrooms during sleep leave only emergency lighting (to 5 lx).
Daily cleaning of rooms To. it is made by the next cleaners and men on duty under observation of the person on duty on a company. Once a week make the general cleaning of all rooms To. with mopping if they are not rubbed with mastic. During the general cleaning all bedding (mattresses, pillows, blankets) take out to the yard and carefully beat out and air. In the same day change bed linen and washing in a bath of staff and change of underwear is made.
The medical service in AF of the USSR carries out a precautionary dignity. supervision of design, construction and reception constructed To., and also medical control for their dignity. state in use.
Bibliography: Barkhin M. G. Military buildings, Original positions on design, M., 1940, bibliogr.; Military hygiene, kind from ying A. P. Kurs's lavas, t. 1 — 2, SPb., 1885 — 1887; Krotkov F. G. Military hygiene, M., 1959, bibliogr.; Experience of the Soviet medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945, t. 33, M., 1955; Charter of internal service of Armed Forces of the USSR, M., 1977.
P. N. Kurpita.