BALNEOLOGY [the resort(s) + grech, logos the doctrine] — the field of medical science, the cut is a subject studying of properties of natural physical factors and development of methods of their use in resorts, and also in extra spa facilities (local sanatoria, city water mud baths, etc.). To number natural to lay down. (resort) factors belong: favorable climate, mineral water and curative dirt.
The industries To. are medical climatology (see. Climatology medical ), climatotherapy (see) with aero - gelio-and thalassotherapy (see. Air-cure , Heliation , Thalassotherapy ), balneology (see) and balneoterapiya (see). To. it is connected with a number of interdisciplinary sciences about the nature and Earth: geophysics (see), hydrogeology (see), hydrochemistry, meteorology (see), hydrometeorology and climatology, and also with physiology (see), hygiene (see), clinical and other disciplines.
The term «balneology» is accepted in the Soviet Union in 1926 when Narkomzdrava RSFSR was founded specialized research by in-t of balneology. The initiative of adoption of the term belongs to the therapist-balneologist V. A. Alexandrov. Outside the USSR at interpretation of the problems relating to biometeorology, balneology and to lay down. to dirt, long since use the terms «termalizm», «klimatizm», «thermal medicine», «thermal therapy», «medical hydrology», «balneoklimatolecheniye», etc. The term «balneology» also found application in NRB.
Brief historical information
Physical. factors of the nature (sunshine, water, air) began to apply in an extreme antiquity to treatment of diseases and effects of injuries.
Savonarola (M. of Savonarola) in 1485 published the first book on balneology. Paracelsus described physical. - chemical structure and fiziol, action of a number of mineral waters of Germany. But only in 19 century works it is mute. doctors Bikkel, Greddel and Fox (A. Bickel, To. Greddel, F. Fochs) were put Kliniko-fiziol, fundamentals of balneology and medical climatology. Fr. scientists of Fleri (L. Fleury, 1856), Beni, the Bard and Matern (Beni, Barde, Materne, 1894) laid the scientific foundation of balneotherapy. Amer. authors Steel (J.H. Steel, 1851), Baruk (S. Baruch, 1893), Bleach (A.N. Beli, 1885) published the first works about mineral waters of the USA and on climatology. In 20 century German [Dietrich, Kaminer (To. Dietrich, S. Kaminer, from 1916 to 1924) ] and French [Pierri, Milo (M. of Pierie, M. of Milhaud, 1924)] scientists published multivolume works on balneology (in particular, about radioactive mineral waters) and on medical climatology. The Italian scientist Messini (M. of Messini) in 1931 published the treatise about the wedge, hydroclimatology republished in 1950 and 1951.
At the end of 19 and the beginning of 20 century in a number of the European countries and the USA appear scientific about-va on studying of questions of thalassotherapy, hydrobalneology, climatology etc. In a number of high fur boots of Germany and Italy departments of hydrobalneology, a medical hydrology are created.
In Russia in 19 — the beginning of 20 century mineral waters were used preferential as medical drinking, however scientifically developed indications and techniques 'their uses did not exist; was considered that the more and longer to drink, the it is more than advantage. In 1824. And. P. Nelyubin for the first time indicated the need of drink of mineral waters limited on volume, and in 1828 P. Savenkov developed indications to drink of mineral waters at diseases of the digestive system and an urinary system. In 1825 the doctor A. S. Nikitin in the resort of Staraya Russa made recommendations about the differentiated use of bathtubs of various temperature from mineral water at various diseases. Gradually on the basis of Carried out fiziol, researches and a wedge, observations certain techniques of a balneoterapiya began to be applied in many resorts. Development of scientific research in a balneoterapiya and climatology in the second half of 19 century is connected with works of scientists and doctors led by S. A. Smirnov — the organizer and the head of the first Russian balneal about-va on Caucasus Mineralnye Vody region, founded in 1863. The researches of I. P. Pavlov and his employees devoted to influence of chemical structure of mineral waters on function of a stomach and a role of nervous control at drinking treatment made "a basis of the doctrine about use of mineral waters inside. Studying physical. - chemical properties of mineral waters, 19 century which were successfully developing from the second half, laid the foundation for the theory and practice of external use of sulfide, carbonic, radon and other waters in the form of bathtubs, flourishes, etc. The big contribution to studying of mineral waters was made by M. V. Sergeyev's researches on resort hydrogeology and V. I. Vernadsky on geochemistry of fields of underground mineral waters and conditions of formation their physical. - chemical properties. To development of the doctrine about to lay down. dirt on the basis of studying of experience of their use in mud resorts — Saky, Yevpatoria, etc. promoted works A. M. Verigo, O. O. Mochutkovsky, B. M. Brusilovsky, A. A. Lozinsky and S. S. Nalbandov.
Fundamentals of medical climatology and a climatotherapy were put by A. I. Voyeykov, P. G. Mezernitsky's researches. A big contribution to development a wedge, bases of a balneoterapiya and a climatotherapy theoretical and practical works of domestic clinical physicians 19 — the beginnings of 20 century brought M. Ya. Mu firewood, S. P. Botkina, G. A. Zakharyin, A. A. Ostroumov, and also balneologists M. G. Kurlov, V. A. Alexandrov, I. A. Valedinsky.
Thus, by the beginning of 20 century the foundation of the doctrine about the main natural physical was laid. factors — climate, mineral waters and to lay down. dirt. Thanks to it the theoretical and practical data which formed a basis for improvement of resort matter in the country were obtained.
Balneology in the USSR.
Unlike Western Europe and America, a dignity. - hens. matter in the USSR from the first days of the Soviet power developed as the state system (see. Health care ).
In the first years of development of resort matter in the country before To. the following main scientific objectives were set; 1) studying of the existing and perspective resort and to lay down. areas, definition of their suitability for the organization of resorts for an environment (climate, weather conditions, a microclimate, a landscape and other favorable conditions for construction of resorts and stay of significant amounts of people); 2) studying of the territory of the country for detection of fields of the mineral waters and dirt possessing to lay down. properties, gidrogeol. research of mineral waters and conditions of their genesis, studying physical. - chemical properties mineral waters (see) to lay down. dirt (see. therapeutic muds ) and definition of their resources; 3) studying of various parties of the mechanism of action of natural factors on a healthy and sick organism, detection of specific properties each physical. a factor for the purpose of definition of suitability of influence by it on these or those pathogenetic parties patol, process; 4) development of techniques to lay down. and preventive use natural physical. factors generally on site their receiving and research of expediency of their use outside fields and resorts (pouring of mineral waters in bottles, use to lay down. dirt or drugs from them in network to lay down. institutions of the country); 5) development of indications and contraindications to the direction of patients to resorts, proceeding from nozol, forms of diseases, a stage and a phase of their development; 6) an order of selection and the direction of patients to resorts and in sanatorium (see. Sanatorium selection ); 7) the accounting of efficiency carried out in the resort or to sanatoria of treatment; 8) scientific organization dignity. - hens. help.
In development specified theoretical, clinical, methodical and scientific organizational issues To. scientists-kurorto a log, clinical physicians and organizers of health care took part: A. A. Akopyan, G. M. Danishevsky, I. G. Koniashvili, M. P. Konchalovsky, D. A. Markov, S. S. Nalbandov, G. A. Nevrayev, A. I. Nesterov, A. N. Ogilvi, M. A. Jasinowski, etc.
The solution of the listed tasks making the main content of all research, scientific and methodical and scientific and organizational work in To., it was assigned on Central by in-t of balneology and on republican in-you balneology and physical methods of treatment which activity in the scientific and methodical plan coordinates Central in-t of balneology. For the next years they successfully are solved in the main directions, contents them goes deep depending on new state tasks and level of scientific and methodical potential as actually To., and clinical, physics and technology and other sciences, adjacent to it. The results of the solution of these tasks presented in a generalized view are expressed in the following.
Ying-tami of balneology is executed the large volume of works on studying in various districts of the country of the areas having to lay down. and to lay down. - professional, value, on detection on a basis gidrogeol. researches of fields of mineral waters with various content of salts, microelements and organic matters, carbon dioxide gas, nitrogen, radon, etc. The main regions of carbonic, sulfide, radon, chloride sodium waters and nitric thermal waters are defined on the most part of the territory of the country. Classification of these waters by the basic chemical elements making them is developed and the card of placement of underground mineral waters in the huge territory of the country is created, their stocks are defined. GOST on drinking mineral waters is developed and approved (such standards on mineral waters are developed in the USSR for the first time in the world). Fields of different types are studied to lay down. dirt — sulphidic silt, sapropels, sopochny, peat, etc.; their chemical structure, power of the lying layers and stocks is defined, the card of their placement with the instruction physical is made. - chemical characteristics. The climate, a microclimate and weather conditions on seasons of year in all resorts is studied and in many to lay down. areas and zones for rest, bioclimatic characteristics of areas are defined. Cards of structure of climate in classes of weather on resorts, resort districts and on various climatic zones are made (see. Climatology medical ). Data of these researches allow to define districts for construction of resorts, sanatoria or institutions of rest. Special attention is paid on investigation natural to lay down. factors and areas in districts of large industrial construction and settling that gave the chance to provide the population a dignity. - hens. the help on places to save patients from the trips to distant resorts connected with sharp change of climate.
In the course of studying of essence of action natural physical. a faktorovna the organism is revealed a number of the patterns having the general character. It is established that at influence of any physical. factors the leader is the reflex mechanism of action which is shown finally in activity of humoral and endocrine systems with the regulating participation of the highest departments of c. N of page. So, at external use of mineral waters and applications to lay down. dirt the basic is the reflex from skin; at reception of mineral waters inside, a rectal or vaginal technique of mud cure the humoral and endocrine component of the mechanism of action is in close connection with reflex. Studying physical. - chemical properties physical. factors allowed to specify those their specific properties which are adequate biochemical, and biophysical, to the processes in an organism which are developed at molecular and cellular level at this or that pathology i.e. pathogenetic links of a disease. Thanks to it use physical became possible. factors, proceeding from pathogenetic features of a disease. It was also established that the nervous system as the most sensitive to external influences reacts also to small doses of energy physical. factors owing to what to lay down. the effect is reached at use of generally small doses of this or that physical. the agent (small duration of the procedure, small zone of influence, low temperature and moderate concentration of chemical substances in mineral waters and to lay down. dirt etc.).
Idiosyncrasy of resort science and practice in the USSR is their preventive orientation which is expressed in use natural physical. factors and stay in the resort and in sanatorium for the prevention of development of the beginning disease and increase in protective forces of an organism, and in a case hron, diseases — for prevention of aggravations and a recurrence. It is proved that the greatest therapeutic effect can be reached at use natural physical. factors in a complex with artificially received physical. factors, physiotherapy exercises, medicamentous and other methods of treatment at all stages of medical and recovery process. Such comprehensive approach allows to carry out single-step or consecutive impact on the different parties patol, process that expands indications to the direction of patients on a dignity. - hens. treatment also increases its efficiency — the principle of step-by-step treatment. Practice showed high performance of use of methods of complex resort therapy at early stages of development patol, process for the purpose of prevention of complications and strengthening funkts, systems; its efficiency and on reduction stages after a serious illness is rather high. In some cases a wedge, research in-you, clinics and hospitals send patients to local sanatoria and to resorts as continuation to lay down. process and increase in efficiency of step-by-step treatment. In more detail about the principles of a resort therapy — see. Resorts .
One of the important directions in To. — development of scientific and methodical bases dignity. - hens. selection of patients for the direction to resorts and in sanatorium, indications and contraindications to the direction of patients to resorts and in sanatorium taking into account nozol. forms of a disease, character of its current and stages, specific features of an organism of the patient, and also specifics of natural factors in this or that resort, a geographical location of the resort, the nature of action of a natural factor at this disease etc. All these questions make a subject of the special section K. — sanatorium selection (see).
The major problem K. implementation of decisions of the XXV congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on strengthening and upgrading a dignity is. - hens. help to the population of the country.
Development of problems K. the in-volume of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of the USSR, by research in-ta of balneology and physical therapy of the Ministries of Health of federal republics, and also departments of physical therapy and balneology of in-t of improvement of doctors and laboratories of balneology of Central office on management of resorts of labor unions is carried out Central research.
Central research awards of the Labour Red Banner of in-t of balneology and physical therapy are combined by two related sections of medical science — balneology and physical therapy (see). In 1920 Narkomzdravom was organized by RSFSR State in-t of physical therapy and orthopedics, in 1921 the Central resort clinic reorganized in 1926 in Central by in-t of balneology was open. In 1958 both these in-that were integrated in Central research in-t of balneology and physical therapy of M3 of the USSR. Ying t, being head, carries out scientific research in all scientific and scientific and organizational directions K stated above., participates in work of the problem commission of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences on the subject «Balneology and Physical Therapy», coordinates scientific research of all one-profile republican in-t, departments and laboratories.
Since 1960 the in-t is the coordinating center for problems K. and for all one-profile in-t in the socialist countries of Europe also conducts scientific research, joint with them. In in-those also improvement of doctors and paramedical staff of sanatoria in the specialty is carried out. In-that acts on base department of physical therapy Central in-that improvements of doctors, carrying out specialization and improvement of doctors in physical therapy.
In a number of federal republics (the Azerbaijani SSR, the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Georgian SSR, the Kyrgyz SSR, the Uzbek SSR) exist research in-you balneology and physical therapy (see. Research institutes ).
In RSFSR there are a scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy in Pyatigorsk, Sverdlovsk, Sochi, Tomsk; in the Ukrainian SSR — scientific research institute of physical methods of treatment and medical climatology of I. M. Sechenov in Yalta and Ying t of balneology in Odessa; in the Belarusian SSR — Ying t of neurology, neurosurgery and physical therapy; in the Turkmen SSR — Ying t of neurology and physical therapy; in the Estonian SSR — department of balneology Estonian in-that experimental and clinical medicine; in the Kazakh SSR — department of balneology Kazakh in-that regional pathology. Besides, there are laboratories of balneology of a row republican (The Latvian and Lithuanian SSR) and territorial councils for management of resorts of labor unions. All these institutions solve the problems connected with studying of specifics local natural physical. factors and development of methods of their use in to lay down. - professional, the purposes.
In the USSR All-Union science foundation of physiotherapists and balneologists functions. In all federal republics are available republican and city about-va physiotherapists and balneologists. All-Union about-in physiotherapists and balneologists supervises the «Questions of Balneology, Physical Therapy and Medical Physical Culture» magazine issued with frequency of 6 times a year. All-Union about-in from 1952 to 1977 held seven all-Union congresses devoted to the most important issues of development and increase in efficiency of methods of physical therapy and a resort therapy, their use in treatment of a number of diseases.
In medical in-ta of the USSR teaching fundamentals of physical therapy and balneology is carried out in 26-hour series of lectures and a practical training on the IV course. Use of their techniques in clinic accustoms to the course of clinical occupations on the VI course.
Specialization of doctors is carried out on 4-month courses in in-ta of improvement of doctors and in workplaces in scientific research institute of balneology and physical therapy. Improvement of knowledge on To. also it is carried out in in-ta of improvement of doctors and at three departments of balneology — in Kislovodsk, Yalta and Odessa, annual courses in Moscow organized by Central office on management of resorts of labor unions. Improvement of doctors is conducted and directly in resorts in the course of the organized scientific and practical observations.
In the socialist countries of Europe there are research in-you, scientific about-va also magazines devoted to development of problems K. In NRB since 1948 there is a scientific research institute of balneology, physical therapy and rehabilitation. Branch in-that is in Varna. In the country works Bulgarian about-in balneologists and physiotherapists. The Balneology and Physical Therapy magazine is issued.
In VNR the scientific research institute of rheumatism and physical therapy functions. There is Ob-in of balneoklimatoterapevt, the magazine «by Reumatologia, balneologia, allergologia» is issued (1960).
B GDR are available two scientific research institutes on problems K.: Ying t of balneology and a kurortovedeniya in Bud-Elstere (branch in Brambakh) and Ying t of a bioclimatology of meteorological service of GDR. Functions scientific about-in on physical therapy. The Zeitschrift fur Physiotherapie magazine is issued.
In the Party of Russian Taxpayers the scientific research institute, balneo-climatology (Poznan) with branches in Polyanitsa, Krynitsa, Inowroclaw and clinics operates on some other resorts. It is created Polish balneoklimatologichesky scientific about-in, Balneologia Polska (1951) and Problemy Uzdrowiskowe magazines are issued.
B CPP is available scientific research institute on physical medicine, a balneoklimatolecheniye and medical rehabilitation, scientific about-in, issuing the Balneologia magazine.
In ChSSR in the resort of Mariánské Lázne in 1952 it is organized Balneal by in-t with divisions in Frantishkovi Lazne's resort and To are catch Varya. In Bratislava in 1960 the scientific research institute of a climatotherapy and climatology is created. As a part of Czechoslovak medical about-va of Ya. Purkinye there is a section of physiotherapists. Since 1923 the Fiziatricky a Reumatologicky vestnik magazine is issued.
Teaching To. in the socialist countries in Europe it is carried out on the IV course of medical in-comrade. Specialization and improvement are carried out on the basis of in-t of a balneoklimatologiya and in clinics of medical in-t and academies with the subsequent examination. In the resort of Karlovy Vary the international advanced training courses on balneology, climatology and the general therapy will annually be organized.
In a number of the capitalist countries there are nauchnoissledovatelsky in-you and the periodicals devoted to development of problems K. So, in France the Presse thermale et elimatique magazine (since 1886), in Italy — «Clinica thermale» is issued (since 1948) etc.
In the capitalist countries training of specialists on physical. to medicine, including on a balneoklimatologiya, it is conducted directly in medical institutions where doctors train within two and more years and upon termination of defend the thesis.
The international congresses are carried out on various problems K. So, in 1963, 1967, 1972, 1976, 1978 took place the congresses on thalassotherapy in Italy, France, etc., in 1962 and in 1966 — on balneology and medical climatology (Cannes), in 1966 — on a termalizm (France), in 1972 — on a bioclimatology (Italy) etc. the VIII International congress on the hydrothermal equipment took place in the USSR in Kislovodsk in 1972.
Bibliography: Alexandrov of V. A. Peloida of the USSR (Therapeutic muds), M., 1940; it, G. A. Zakharyin is the founder of domestic balneology, Rubbed. arkh., t. 26, century 1, page 13, 1954; Questions of studying of medicinal mineral waters, dirt and climate, under the editorship of Yu. E. Danilov, etc., M., 1976; N. A. Chaps. Resort therapy and prevention of an idiopathic hypertensia, M., 1978, bibliogr.; L about z Pi of N with to and y A. A. Balneologiya of the practical doctor, p.1 — 3, Pyatigorsk, 1916 — 1917; it, Lectures on the general balneology, M., 1949; Mezernitsky P. G. Medical meteorology, Yalta, 1937; The Multivolume management of «Fundamentals of balneology», under the editorship of V. A. Alexandrov, t. 1 — 3, M., 1956 — 1959; Olefirenko V. T. In to - treatment, M., is warm 1978; Fundamentals of balneology, under the editorship of M. P. Konchalovsky and G. M. Danishevsky, t. 1 — 3, M., 1932 — 1936; Savoshchenko. C. A role of the Russian balneological society in development of the Caucasian mineral. waters, Stavropol, 1958; Bert J. M of e. a. Therapeu-tique thermale et climatique, P., 1972; D and y with to and A. Balneologiya, Sofia, 1977, bibliogr.; Jordan H. Kurorttherapie, Jena, 1975, Bibliogr.; Tratatto di idro-climatologia clinica, sotto red. M. Messini, v. 1 — 2, Bologna, 1950 — 1951.
A. H. Obrosov, B. M. Bogolyubov.