BAKULEV Alexander Nikolaevich (1890 — 1967) — the Soviet surgeon, the academician of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1958) and USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1948), the president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences (1953 — 1960), the honored worker of science of RSFSR (1946), Hera of Socialist Work (I960); honourable doctor of medicine Turin un-that.
In 1911 arrived on medical f-t Saratov un-that. In 1915 from the 4th course it was called up by the zauryad-doctor for field army and the ml served. the doctor of an infantry regiment on the Western front. In 1917 it is recalled from army in Saratov by un-t where in 1918 gained the diploma of the doctor. Served then in Red Army. Since 1922 — the intern and the assistant to hospital surgical clinic Saratov un-that. In 1926
A. N. Bakulev is transferred to clinic of faculty surgery of the 2nd Moscow un-that (since 1930 — the 2nd MMI of N. I. Pirogov), to-ruyu S. I. Spasokukotsky headed. Here he was the assistant, the senior assistant, the associate professor, the second professor. In 1928 in Germany in G. Forster's clinic studied a craniocereberal injury. In 1939 — 1941 — the manager. hospital surgical clinic pediatric f-that 2nd MMI. In 1942 — 1943 — the department chair of the general and field surgery of the 1st MMI. In 1943 (after S. I. Spasokukotsky's death) headed department of faculty surgery of the 2nd MMI and directed it till last days lives. Since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War it was hl. surgeon of the Reserve front, and then in combination hl. surgeon of evakogospitaly Moscow. In 1941 — 1953 there was a hl. surgeon of medical and sanitary management of the Kremlin. In 1956 on its initiative Ying t of cardiovascular surgery of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences was created. He was his first director (1956 — 1958), then the research supervisor; nowadays the institute bears a name of A. N. Bakulev.
The native of peasants, A. N. Bakulev passed a big and nice way from the ordinary doctor to the academician with a world name, being always an example of selfless service to the people.
The beginning of developments of the majority of complex and urgent problems of modern surgery is connected with a name of A. N. Bakulev. Its early works concern urological problems — surgical pathology of kidneys, use of radiopaque substances at their researches, methods of changes of ureters.
A. N. Bakulev gave a lot of attention to development went. - kish. surgeries. Are offered them: original operation of an esophagoplasty (1935), operation on removal of a head of a pancreas, faterov of a nipple; recovery and reconstructive operations on the bilious ways, etc.
A. N. Bakulev made a serious contribution to development of surgery of the central and peripheral nervous system; it the first in the USSR (1925) developed and applied methods entsefalo-and ventrikulografiya, a method of a drainage of arachnoidal space at an edema of a brain by an omentopexy. It possesses development of a method of treatment of abscesses of a brain repeated punctures with filling of a cavity of an abscess with air (1940), and also removal of abscess with the capsule with the subsequent deaf seam. In the period of the Great Patriotic War And. N. Bakulev published a number of works on surgical treatment of craniocereberal wounds; offered radical processing of wounds with deaf mending of a wound, irrespective of terms of wound, provisions a cut were included (since 1944) in «Instructions on field surgery».
A. N. Bakulev made a large contribution to development of chest surgery. In 1930 it successfully removed a tumor of a mediastinum, in 1935 made the first operation for an adhesive pericarditis. It for the first time in the USSR (on June 1, 1945) successfully manufactured removal of a lung at the patient concerning chronic suppuration. A. N. Bakulev is considered by right the founder of radical pulmonary surgery. Results of long-term observations were generalized in the monograph «Pneumonectomy and Lobectomy» sovm, from A. V. Gerasimova (1949). This book remained practical guidance for a number of years and in many respects promoted development of pulmonary surgery in the country. For development of methods of radical surgeries at pulmonary diseases and implementation of these methods in medical practice in 1949 to it the State award II of the USSR to degree was awarded. In 1961 A. N. Bakulev together with R. S. Kolesnikova published the monograph «Surgical Treatment of Purulent Diseases of Lungs», in a cut the result of 40 years' experience of clinic is summed up.
A. N. Bakulev by right is considered the founder of cardiovascular surgery in the USSR. It for the first time in the country made successfully operations at an open arterial channel (1948) and a mitral stenosis (1952). Along with development of methods of an operative measure he studied diagnostic methods, indications to surgical interventions, maintaining before - and the postoperative period. In 1955 there was a capital monograph of A. N. Bakulev and E. N. Meshal of kina about inborn heart diseases, pathology, clinic and their surgical treatment, in a cut on the basis of wide personal experience understands a wide range of the questions connected with this pathology. In 1958 under A. N. Bakulev's edition the monograph «Surgical treatment of mitral stenoses is published. The management for doctors». A. N. Bakulev, highly appreciating a role of physiologists in development of surgery, incessantly propagandized the closest communication and broad cooperation with representatives of this specialty. In the clinic he organized laboratory of physiology, a research of external respiration and blood gases and some other. Here in 1945 the newest methods of studying of physiological functions of an organism with use of methods of cardiac catheterization, a contrast research of heart and vessels began to be developed.
A. N. Bakulev's clinic was a pioneer in development of methods of electrostimulation at cross heart blocks, surgical treatment of coronary insufficiency. A. N. Bakulev for the first time suggested to operate patients with an acute myocardial infarction. For the organization of scientific research of the acquired and inborn heart diseases and the main vessels, development of methods of surgical treatment and their implementation in practice of medical institutions A. N. Bakulev was conferred the Lenin award (1957).
A. N. Bakulev created the surgical school which brought up many the famous Soviet surgeons, it prepared more than 30 doctors of medical sciences and professors. Many of his pupils headed research medical institutions, became heads of departments at medical institutes of the country and continue to develop successfully problems of cardiovascular and pulmonary surgery, and also neurosurgery.
A. N. Bakulev is the participant of many international foreign (national) congresses and congresses of surgeons. The original scientist, he deserved glory of the innovator among specialists. Its operations always differed in great skills. In 1965 it is conferred by the first of domestic surgeons (the thirteenth in the world) the honourable award «Gold Scalpel».
A. N. Bakulev combined scientific, medical and pedagogical activity with big state and scientific and public work. Especially brightly his organizing talent was shown on a post of the president of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. He was the deputy of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the 3, 4 and 5 convocations (1950 — 1962), the member of Inter-parliamentary committee of the Supreme Council of the USSR, the member of Presidium of Committee on Lenin awards in science and technology (since 1956), the board member of the All-Union island of surgeons, the honorary member surgical the island (All-Union, Leningrad of N. I. Pirogov, Saratov, Kuibyshev, Kazan, Latvian, Moscow, etc.), the Serbian surgical island, the Czechoslovak medical island of A. Purkinye and the Polish island of surgeons, the vice-president of the XX Congress of the International island of surgeons (1963). A. N. Bakulev was the author and the scientific editor of illustrative department of 1 prod. BME, editor of the multivolume work «Experience of the Soviet Medicine in the Great Patriotic War of 1941 — 1945.»; in 1954 — 1967 — the editor-in-chief of BME (the 2nd prod.) and «The popular medical encyclopedia» (sovm, with F. N. Petrov). It is awarded by three Orders of Lenin, awards of the Red Star and the Labour Red Banner, and also medals; Bulgarian award «For Civil Merits» and Yugoslavian award «Merit on the People».
Works: Value of pneumography of a brain at tumors of a hypophysis, Klin, medical, t. 3, No. 3-4, page 110, 1925; Assessment of ways of operational treatment of an edema of a brain, It is new. hir., t. 3, No. 5, page 463, 1926; Conservative treatment of abscesses of a brain (puncture), yew., M., 1940; Treatment of gunshot wounds of a backbone and spinal cord, Surgery, No. 10, page 85, 1944; Experience of treatment of abscesses of a brain in the Great Patriotic War, in the same place, No. 4, page 183, 1946; To diagnosis and treatment of an adhesive pericarditis, in the same place, No. 10, page 33, 1948; The Pneumonectomy and a lobectomy (a technique of operations), M., 1949 (sovm, from Gerasimova A. V.); Surgical treatment of heart troubles and main vessels, M., 1952; Inborn heart diseases, pathology, clinic, surgical treatment, M., 1955 (sovm, with Meshalkin E. N); Surgical treatment of heart diseases, Works of the 26th Vsesoyuz. congress hir., page 113, M., 1956; Experience of bandaging of a hepatic artery at treatment of a portal hypertension, M., 1957 (sovm, with Galushko Yu. A.); The surgical course of purulent diseases of lungs, M., 1961 (sovm, from Kolesnikova R. S.); Surgical treatment of tumors and cysts of a mediastinum, M., 1967 (sovm, from Kolesnikova R. S.); Surgical treatment of occlusions of an upper vena cava and its inflows, M., 1967 (sovm, with other).
Bibliography: Alexander Nikolaevich Bakulev, sost. V. D. Magnitskaya, M., 1963, bibliogr.; Burakovsky V. I., Savelyev V. S. and Tsentsiper M. B., A. N. Bakulev is the founder of cordial surgery in the USSR, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, JsTa 10, page 75, 1967; At l I am e in A. V. Alexander Nikolaevich Bakulev — the outstanding Soviet surgeon, in book: the 24th kongr. Mezhdunarodn. islands hir., page 88, M., 1971; Kolesnikov S.A. Scientific activity of the academician A. N. Bakulev, Works Ying-that grudn. hir., t. 6, page 16, M., 1961.
V. S. Savelyev.