BAKING PRODUCTION, occupational health. H.p. — the industry of the food industry developing various grades of bakery products.
Modern X. the item is characterized by increase in concentration of production that along with complex mechanization of technological processes creates a possibility of considerable improvement of working conditions and reduction of number of the workers occupied with hard manual skills.
Technological processes of X. items include preparation of the main and auxiliary raw materials, preparation of the test, fermentation of a baking semi-finished product, cutting of the test and formation of test preparations, baking of baking products, cooling and storage of finished goods.
Factors of X, adverse for a human body. items are: elevated temperature of air, the surfaces of the equipment and finished goods, a caloradiance of furnaces (see the Microclimate); high content in air of a product of dough fermentation — carbon dioxide gas (see Anhydride of carbonic acid), products of incomplete combustion of fuel and burning of lubricants — carbon monoxide (see), acrolein (see), and also flour dust (see).
Maximum allowable concentrations (see) harmful substances in air of a working zone make: for acrolein — 0,2 mg! mg, carbon monoxide — 20 mg/m3, carbon dioxide gas — 0,5 mg/m3, flour dust — mg/m3. The maximum air temperature in the main production rooms shall not exceed during the warm period of year 26 °.
Due to the shortcomings of a design of nek-ry types of processing equipment (dough mixing, testodelitelny, testoformuyushchy cars) and imperfection of technological process developing of production injuries is possible. Moving parts of the production equipment, vehicles, electric current, high temperature can be proximate causes of injuries (see Traumatism).
Considerable exercise stress in the conditions of an adverse microclimate and a forced working pose cause a possibility of development in workers of X. item patol. changes of the musculoskeletal device, diseases of cardiovascular system, female internal generative organs, disturbances of a course of pregnancy. Among diseases the greatest share is the share of acute respiratory diseases, a hypertension (see). Women also — on inflammatory diseases of appendages have uterus (see the Adnexitis)', is considerably widespread flat-footedness (see) and a varicosity (see).
As actions for prevention of incidence serve implementation of installations of unpacked storage and transportation of flour and auxiliary raw materials, implementation of the product automated and mechanized lines for development of various grades of bread, replacement of dough mixing cars with podkatny dezha with testoprigotovitelny units, transfer of furnaces into progressive types of fuel, use for baking of bread of forms with a polymer coating, mechanization of handling works in hle-bokhranilshets and an expedition (a container way of storage and delivery of bread). To improvement dignity. - a gigabyte. working conditions sealing and heat insulation of the equipment, improvement of all-exchange and local ventilation (see), aspiration devices promote.
Working at the baking enterprises are provided with overalls (see Clothes special) and special footwear (see Footwear). Apply respirators to protection against flour dust and high concentration of the harmful substances which are contained in air (see), safety spectacles (see), gas masks (see).
The personnel of the baking enterprises are exposed to periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination), and going to work surely undergo medical inspection.
Workers of the baking enterprises have the right for additional issue. Women are forbidden to work as pastry specialists at dough mixing cars with the podkatny dezha with a capacity more than 330 l moved manually. It is also forbidden to use work of persons under 18 on the following professions of X. item: the driver-zasypshchik, the driver на^ grinding machines, the baker occupied directly furnaces, a polimeri-zatorshchik of metal forms and sheets, the pastry specialist servicing dough mixing cars of periodic action with podkatny dezha with a capacity more than 330 l.
Bibliography: Auerman L. Ya. Techno
logiya of baking production, M., 1972; In about y t to about in with to and y P. A. and P about-lutornova T. I. Sanitary mode of baking production, M., 1953; r and A. S's tires. and P about l of t a shouting and to M. I. Complex mechanization and automation of productions on bakeries, M., 1976; r and -
A. S's tires., Ilyinskaya of T. H. and 3 e l m and G. S N. Modern baking production, M., 1973.
T. V. Torkunova.