BACON Francis (Bacon Francis, 1561 — 1626) — the English philosopher, the ancestor of English materialism and the modern experimenting science. He, according to Engels, transferred from natural sciences to philosophy a metaphysical way of thinking. He formulated the philosophical views and understanding of problems of science, and also a basis of scientific induction in the treatise «New Organon». F. Bacon aimed at strengthening of the union of philosophy with natural sciences and medicine also considered that only such union gnaws to yield the necessary scientific results.
As sciences which are stated to them in the treatise «About the Advantage and Improvement of Sciences» F. Bacon considered the main objectives of medicine preservation and promotion of health of the person, eradication of the arisen diseases, extension of human life. He claimed that thanks to improvement of iatrotechnics duration of human life can be considerably increased. In the same book he stated a number of the methodological provisions which did not lose value and presently. So, it put efficiency of treatment into dependence on the correct understanding of a ratio of the theory and practice. He advised doctors to trace the plan of systematic and consecutive treatment and not to evade from it without valid excuse. Development of treatment planning is impossible if the doctor revaluates a role of experience and ignores the theory of a pla on the contrary. Proceeding from the principle of determinancy of a disease living conditions of the person, he recommended to apply causal, etiological therapy with use specific to lay down. means, without excluding at the same time value of a symptomatic treatment. He urged doctors to use natural factors for treatment and to develop balneology. A number of statements about medicine is available in his book «New Atlantis» where it described future «rooms of health» with favorable conditions for treatment of diseases. T. Bacon exerted a great influence on formation of outlook of many scientists, including and the friend U. Garvey.
Works: The works, v. 1 — 14, L., 1857 — 1874; Compositions, the lane with English. t. 1 — 2, M., 1971 — 1972.
Bibliography: Marx K. of N Engels F. Compositions, 2nd prod., t. 2, page 142, M., 1955; Herzen A. I. Chosen philosophical works, t. 1, page 239, M., 1948; V. F Voices. Sketches on stories of the English materialism of 17 — 18 centuries, Krasnoyarsk, 1958.
G. I. Tsaregorodtsev.