BACH Alexey Nikolaevich (1857 — 1946) — the Russian, Soviet biochemist and the public figure, the academician of Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929), Hera of Socialist Work (1945), the winner of the State award (1941). In 1875 arrived on physical and mathematical f-t Kiev un-that. From 1878 to 1881 was in exile (Belozersk) for participation in political performances. After return from the reference entered a National Will party, since 1883 passed illegal status, and in 1885 emigrated abroad. Worked in P. Schiitzenberger's laboratory in College de France, and after moving in 1894 to Switzerland — in own chemical laboratory. In 1917 returned home; in 1918 organized the Central chemical laboratory at VSNKh of RSFSR (afterwards Physical and chemical in-t of L. Ya. Karpov), in 1920 — Biochemical in-t Narkomzdrava of RSFSR, in 1935 — Biochemical in-t of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, bearing nowadays his name.
Scientific activity of A. N. Bach was devoted to development of a number of the main problems of the general biological chemistry. He was engaged in studying of the chemical processes connected with assimilation of carbonic acid green plants, processes of fermentation, oxidation, cellular respiration, ways of allocation and purification of enzymes in a research of their properties, development of micromethods of definition of nek-ry enzymes, clarification of the course of formation of a number of enzymes in the burgeoning seeds, etc.
A. N. Bach developed (1894) new sensitive reaction to hydrogen peroxide and by means of this reaction established formation of hydrogen peroxide in various plants. To them braking of fermentation in the presence of peroxidase is revealed that gained later value during the studying of effect of Pasteur. Studying a role of peroxides, A. N. Bach created the original theory of slow oxidation and cellular respiration (1897) and, being returned to it within the next several decades, developed and supported it with a number of chemical and biochemical experiments. On And. To N. Bach, activation of molecular oxygen results from a rupture of one its communication and accession to the organic matters capable to autooxidation. The formed high-molecular peroxides (oxygenases) give the activated oxygen with the participation of enzymes (peroxidases) to substrate. The oxidation at the expense of elements of water which is also happening in a cell is the interfaced oxidation-reduction process and is catalyzed by pergidridaza. These processes lie, according to A. N. Bach, at the heart of cellular respiration.
A. N. Bach with the employees developed a micromethod of definition rolled elements, peroxidases and proteinases in one drop of blood, and a method of definition of a catalase to a crust, time has broad use (see. Bach-Zubkova method ).
A. N. Bach and his pupils laid the foundation for the technical biochemistry studying biochemical processes in bread baking, winemaking during the receiving tea, and also in other industries of the food industry. The Soviet school of biochemists formed considerably under the influence of A. N. Bach's ideas. Among his direct pupils: academicians W. A. Engelgardt, A. I. Oparin, A. L. Kursanov, Η. M. Sisakyan, A. E. Braunstein.
A. N. Bach is the deputy of the Supreme Council of the USSR of the 1st convocation. Since 1928 headed All-Union association of workers of science and technology for assistance to socialist construction (VARNITSO); since 1935 — the permanent chairman of the All-Union chemical island of D. I. Mendeleyev. A. N. Bach was an active participant of preparation of the first Soviet encyclopedic editions: 1st BSE edition, two MSE editions; in the 1st BME edition he was an editor of the section of biological chemistry. It founded the Biokhimiya magazine (1936). It is awarded by four Orders of Lenin and an award of the Labour Red Banner.
Works: Meeting of works in chemistry and biochemistry, M., 1950.
Bibliography: Alexey Nikolaevich Bach, sost. O. A. Gubyrina, M. — L., 1946, bibliogr.; Bach JI. And. and About p and r and and A. I. Alexey Nikolaevich Bach, M., 1957; Oparin A. I. Alexey Nikolaevich Bach, 1857 — 1946, in book: People of the Russian science, under the editorship of I. V. Kuznetsov, page 288, M., 1963.
A. A. Bayev.