BABUKHIN Alexander Ivanovich (1827 — 1891) is the Russian histologist, one of founders of the Moscow schools of gistofiziolog and bacteriologists. In 1859 ended medical f-t Moscow un-that and it was left at department of physiology. Under the leadership of P. P. Eynbrodt in 1862 protected dokt. the thesis «About the relation of vagus nerves to heart». Worked in laboratories of the European scientists — for Müller, Ludwig, Bryukke.
In 1865 — 1869 managed department of physiology Moscow un-that and at the same time gave a course of histology. In 1869 after allocation of histology in independent discipline it is elected professor of department of histology Moscow un-that, the cut directed until the end of life.
A. I. Babukhin's researches exerted a great influence on development of histology and physiology of neuromuscular system. He one of the first described neurofibrilla in peripheral nerve fibrils (1868), established that axial cylinders of nerve fibrils are shoots of nervous cells (1869, 1876). It found (1877) a phenomenon axon reflex (see), testimonial of ability of nerves to carry out excitement in both directions.
As the scientist A. I. Babukhin used world recognition. Chapters about a crystalline lens and about an olfactor organ for the capital guide to histology published in Germany by Shtrikker (1872) are written to them; according to its instructions firm Gartnak, and afterwards firm of Tseyss produced microscopes with supports of a design of A. I. Babukhin (A-VIII model). He designed a warm stage for intravital observations (Babukhin's little table — Shklyarevsky), the original microtome, etc.
In 1888 A. I. Babukhin organized the Moscow's first bacteriological laboratory which laid the foundation for the Moscow school of bacteriologists at the department run by it. Along with I. M. Sechenov, S. P. Botkin, I. I. Mechnikov and others A. I. Babukhin promoted the statement in Russia of materialistic philosophy in natural sciences. The big group of his pupils continued the gistofiziologichesky direction (I. F. Ognev, A. A. Kolosov, N. A. Arsenyev, etc.). Under its management morphologists D. N. Zernov, V. M. Shimkevich, clinical physicians G. A. Zakharyin, worked with B. F. Snegirev, A. A. Ostroumov, L. S. Minor, etc. In 1926 the name of A. I. Babukhin is appropriated to a city hospital No. 24 in Moscow.
Works: About the relation of vagus nerves to heart, yew., M., 1862; Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Auges, besonders der Retina, Würzburger naturwiss. Z., Bd 4, S. 71, 1863; Übersicht der neuen Untersuchungen über Entwicklung, Bau und physiologische Verhältnisse der elektrischen und pseudoelektrischen Organe, Arch. Anat. Physiol, wiss. Med., S. 501, 1876; Beobachtungen und Versuche am Zitterwelse und Mormyrus des Niles, ibid., S. 250, 1877.
Bibliography: Voytov A. Alexander Ivanovich Babukhin, Meditsina, page 357, 1891; Metelkin A. I., Alov I. A. both X e with and N I. E., A. I. Babukhin, founder of the Moscow school of histologists and bacteriologists, 1827 — 1891, M., 1955.
Ya. E. Hesinonim