Bénédicte's MORELLO (Morel Benedict Augustin, 1809 — 1873) — the fr. psychiatrist. Ended medical f-t Parisian un-that in 1839.
Zh. Eskirol's pupil. Since 1841 Marevill, since 1857 worked with hl in Salpetriyere in Zh. Falre's department, since 1848 in-tse. the doctor-tsy Saint-Ion about Rouen. B. Morel under the influence of K. Bernard, about the Crimea it was connected by the personal relations, profoundly studied the physiology, a comparative anatomy, embryology, biology promoting its formation as the psychiatrist-anthropologist. It allowed B. Morel to come to a conclusion that sincere diseases depend not on the separate accidental reasons, and represent consecutive links long biol, process that found reflection in creation of the etiological principle of classification of sincere diseases by it. B. Morel considered the main reason for development of mental diseases the adverse hereditary predisposition bringing to patol, evolutions — to the deterioration in mental health progressing from generation to generation (this process designated the term «degeneration»). It allocated special group hereditarily of the caused psychoses — folies hereditaires. At the same time B. Morel showed that along with heredity process of a degeneration can be caused by the most various adverse environmental, social reasons capable not only cause a mental disease, but also render patol, influence on hereditary predisposition. Etiol, approach in studying of mental diseases led B. Morel to a conclusion about need and a possibility of the prevention of a degeneration by change of living conditions, introduction of safety prevention (prophylaxie preservatrice) which is carried out by society and the state. B. Morel possesses allocation of 2 groups of diseases — emotivny nonsense and early weak-mindedness that was important for development of clinical psychiatry. The Emotivny nonsense included a large number of forms of mental disorders, at to-rykh the diseased usually realize the abnormality. Cardinal symptom of a disease — dominance patol, affectivities. Under the name «early weak-mindedness» (demence precoce) B. A morello described displays of the progressing disease arising at youthful age that formed later a basis during creation of the doctrine by E. Krepelin about dementia praecox. B. Morel the first described characteristic signs and gave definition to the latent epilepsy.
Works: Etudes cliniques, Nancy — P., 1853; Traite des degenerescences physiques, in-tellectuelles et morales de Pespece humai-ne, P., 1857; Traite des maladies mentales, P., 1860.
Bibliography: Kannabikh Yu. V. History of psychiatry, page 179, etc., L., 1929; Geni 1-Perr in C. Histoires des origines et de revolution de Pidee dedegeneres-cence en medecine mentale, P., 1913; L a-s yo g u e Ch. Morel, sa vie medicale et ses oeuvres, Arch. gen. Med., t. 1, p. 5 89, 18 73.
H. G. Shumsky.