AXELROD Julius (Axelrod Julius, sort. in 1912) — the American biochemist and the pharmacologist, the master of the humanities (1941), the Nobel Prize laureate (1970).
In 1933 left college in New York, then un-those were the laboratory assistant to department of bacteriology in in New York. Since 1935 the chemist of laboratory of industrial hygiene, since 1946 the assistant to University hospital in New York. Since 1949 heads department of pharmacology in National in-those mental health.
The main works of J. Axelrod are devoted to studying of exchange of biogenic amines in various body tissues. As a result gistokhy, researches it revealed permeability of a blood-brain barrier for noradrenaline and sympathomimetic substances. It studied influence pharmakol, drugs on exchange catecholamines (see) and their distribution in a nervous system, data on localization of noradrenaline in a brain and sympathetic nerve fibrils and about mechanisms of stability of nervous cells to pharmakol, to substances are obtained. J. Axelrod for the first time showed participation catechol-au-methyltransferase, catalyzing O-methylation of catecholamines, in enzymatic transformations of catecholamines. A number of its works is devoted to studying of other way of transformation of catecholamines with participation of monoamine oxidase.
For opening of mechanisms of accumulation, release y an inactivation of mediator substances in nerve terminations J. Axelrod is conferred the Nobel Prize. He is an honourable doctor un-that in Panama, the member correspondent. German pharmacological about-va the member American chemical about-va, the honorary member of the American neurologic association, the member of the International organization for studying of a brain (IBRO). In 1971 it is awarded by Rudolf Virkhov's medal.
Works: Metabolism of epinephrine and other sympathomimetic amines, Physiol. Rev., v. 39, p. 751, 1959; The metabolism of catecholamines in vivo and in vitro, Pharmacol. Rev., v. 11, p. 402, 1959; Methylation reactions in the formation and metabolism of catecholamines and other biogenic amines, ibid., v. 18, p.95, 1966; Catecholamines and hypertension, Clin. Sci. molec. Med., v. 51, suppl. 3, p. 415S, 1976.
S. A. Osipovsky.