AWARDS NOMINAL in medicine — the form of encouragement of the persons who achieved considerable success in medical science or the organization of health care, connected with names of outstanding scientists. The tradition of award of awards for achievements in science ascends by 18 century. Since 1720 for the successful solution of scientific problems awards by Academy of Sciences of France, since 1746 — Prussian academy of Sciences, and since 1747 — the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences are awarded. After an award for scientific achievements began to be awarded scientific about - you, the state departments, various funds, institutions, the editorial offices of magazines, by patrons etc. to Awards, including for achievements in medicine were, as a rule, named the famous scientists or public figures. So, since 1867. The St. Petersburg academy of Sciences for researches in the field of anatomy, histology and embryology awarded an award of a name K. M. Bera, since 1889. St. Petersburg about-vom scientists for works on zoology — an award of a name K. T. Kessler, since 1838. Medicochirurgical academy for works on surgery — an award of I. F. Bush. In the USSR for scientific research, except Lenin awards (see), the State awards of the USSR (see) and federal republics, awards of Council of ministers of the USSR and awards of Lenin Komsomol, a number of the awards bearing names of outstanding Russians and Soviet scientists is founded. The Academy of Sciences of the USSR for researches on physiology and medicine awards awards of I. P. Pavlov (1934, physiology), A. O. Kowalewski (1940, embryology), I. I. Mechnikova (1945, microbiology, etc.), A. N. Bach (1946, biochemistry), I. M. Sechenova (1956, physiology). awards and. awards also the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Domestic personalized awards. The council of ministers of the USSR resolutions of October 19, 1950 and of August 6, 1958 founded the personalized awards of 1500 rubles everyone awarded by presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences once in 4 years for the best scientific works in the field of medicine. Later resolutions of Council of ministers of the USSR of October 14, 1977 founded an award of V. D. Timakov and of August 6, 1981 — a name In V. Larin (tab. 1).
Table 1. PERSONALIZED AWARDS of the USSR ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
For graduate students and a wedge, interns for the best work on pediatrics the award of M. S. Maslov of 300 rub is founded. For involvement of the general medical public to discussion of the works represented on a competition of personalized awards of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences the following order of their award is established. The presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences once in 4 years publishes the notice in «The medical newspaper» on the forthcoming competition on a competition of the corresponding awards and approves then for a year of award of these awards structure of tender committees for assessment of the represented works. The last shall represent the finished original theoretical, pilot or clinical trials enriching the theory and practice of medical science and Soviet health care. The works published in the previous 5 years, and opening, inventions, improvement suggestions in the field of diagnosis, therapy and prevention of diseases — on condition of their implementation can be presented to practice of health care. On a competition of personalized awards of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences both personal, and collective works of citizens of the USSR irrespective of existence at authors of academic degrees and ranks can be presented. The list of works for which personalized awards of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences were awarded are provided in tab. 2. Besides, diplomas of awards by it A. I. Abrikosova were awarded (1975, 1979); M. I. Averbakh (1973, 1977); A. N. Bakuleva (1976, 1980); V. M. Bekhtereva (1974, 1978);. A. Bogomoltsa (1979); S. P. Botkina (1971, 1975); N. N. Burdenko (1978); V. P. Vorobyova (1976); N. F. Gamalei (1977); V. S. Gruzdeva (1972); V. S. Gulevich (1978); D. I. Ivanovsky (1977); M. P. Konchalovsky (1979); S. S. Korsakova (1978); A. L. Myasnpkova (1977); N. N. Petrova (1980); N. I. Pirogova (1971, 1975); N. A, Semashko (1974, 1978); P. G. Sergiyeva (1979); B. F. Snegireva (1977); N. D. Stra-zhesko (1975); V. P. Filatova (1975); N. F. Filatova (1971, 1979). Diplomas of personalized awards are awarded sometimes to big groups of participants of preparation of work. E.g., in 1Y78 of g the diploma of an award of N. A. Xie-ltshko was awarded to group of authors as a part of 56 people for the book «60 years of the Soviet health care» (M., 1978, hl. editor B. V. Petrovsky, deputies of hl. editors C.II. Burenkov, P. N. Burgasov, I. P. Leads, V. D. of I7 and poppies, E. I. Chasov, responsible secretaries B. M. Potulov, A. M. Grindings), in 1974 — to 25 coauthors for the book «Society P Health of the Person», among which 10 scientists of a number of the socialist countries. In 1966 — 1979 the award of M. S. Maslov was awarded to 18 graduate students and clinical interns for the best master's theses on pediatrics.
The international personalized awards
the International personalized awards in memory of certain scientists and organizers of health care are awarded periodically for scientific medicobiological developments and opening, and also for large achievements in the field of social hygiene. Awards belong to the category international if they are awarded by international committee, irrespective of nationality p places of work of applicants. Some P. and. are awarded to persons of a certain geographical district as, e.g., the award Shushi, an award Min-kovsky, etc. The order and frequency of award of awards, a source of financing are established individually for each award at its establishment and are fixed by the charter, the provision or the statute to which additions and changes can be made over time. Pct usually have the relevant constant funds which are created at the expense of private means (posthumous wills), a donation, contributions etc. Percentage accumulation of fixed assets are used for defrayal, the awards connected with award (a reward, izgotovle- ny medals etc.). Funds usually are under authority of the international associations, leagues, specially created committees. Funds of awards of Bernard, Darling, Parizo and Shushi are under authority of WHO, edges awards premiums to the recommendation of the relevant committees. The CEO of WHO is the managing director of funds of these awards. Item and. are usually awarded for the performed works, some funds are used partially (fund of the award Shushi) or completely (fund of an award of Parizo) for encouragement of the planned research. Item and. usually consist of a reward (quite often insignificant symbolical sum), a medal and the certificate or the diploma; some of them — only medals and the certificate or a reward and the certificate. First P. and., the fund a cut is under authority of WHO, the award of Darling is. The fund was created by means of private means in memory of doctor S. Darlinga who died as a result of accident during a research trip of the commission on malaria at the Organization of health care of the League of Nations in 1925. After liquidation of the League of Nations the fund of an award was transferred to WHO. The award of Darling consists of a bronze medal (fig. 1) and a reward of 1000 Swiss francs.
The award is awarded for outstanding achievements in the field of pathology, an etiology, epidemiology, therapy, prevention of malaria and fight against it. The works which made a contribution to the specified sections shall have no more than ten-year prescription from the moment of their publication or end. The CEO of WHO, being the managing director of fund, in process of accumulation of the percent allowing to award an award sends the notice to member countries and the associated members of WHO, and also WHO experts on malaria who were earlier already taking part in work of Committee of experts with the offer to propose within 6 months candidates for a competition of the specified award which they consider worthy; the bases for their promotion shall be stated in writing. Candidacies are originally considered by Committee of experts in malaria which recommends to committee of fund of an award of Darling one or two candidates for winning of the award. Committee of fund, the chairman, vice-chairmen of Executive committee of WHO, the chairman of Committee of experts in malaria or one of members of this committee, and also the CEO of WHO as the secretary of this committee are a part to-rogo, at a private meeting makes the decision on winning of the award. The Executive committee of WHO determines a ceremony of delivery of an award by the recommendation of this committee, edges is usually carried out to time of one of plenary sessions of a regular session of the World assembly of health care. Winners of an award of Darling are: James (S. River of James, Great Britain, 1932), Svel-lengrebel (N. H. Swellengrebel, Netherlands, 1937), H. E. Shortt and Garnem (R. of C. G. Garnham, Great Britain, 1951), Kotni (G. R. Coathney, USA, 1954), Makdo-neld (G. Macdonald, Great Britain, 1954), Russell (P. F. Russell, USA, 1957), Pampana (E. J. Pampana, Italy, 1959), Kavell (G. With veil, Great Britain, 1960), Gabaldon (A. Gahaldon, Venezuela, 1960), Young (M. of D. Young, USA, 1963), Afridi (M. of K. Afridi, Pakistan, 1964), Chuka (M. of Ciuca, Romania, 1966), P. G. Sergiyev (USSR, 1966), Giglio-lp (G. Giglioli, Guyana, 1968), Singh (J.Smgh, India, 1968), Bruce-Chvatt (L. J. Bruce-Chwatt, Great Britain, 1U71), Korradetti (And. Sogga-detti, Italy, 1971), Mac-Gregor (I. A. McGregor, Great Britain, 1974), Ray (A. P. Ray, India, 1974), Farid (M. of A. Farid, Egypt, 1980), Treydzher (W. Träger, USA, 1980). The fund of an award of Bernard (see Berna-and Leon an award), was created in 1937 according to the decision of Council of the League of Nations in honor of the prominent fr. scientist L. Bernard who made a big contribution to work of Standing committee of health care of the League of Nations, a member to-rogo it was from the moment of his basis till 1934. Since 1951 Bernard's award is awarded. WHO according to the statute approved in May, 1950 and the amendments to it made in 1955 and 1979 with delivery of a medal (fig. 2). Winners of an award of Bernard are: Sawyer (W. And. Sawyer, USA, 1939), R. Sand (Belgium, 1951), Winslow (S. E. And. Winslow, USA, 1952), Frannsen (J. Frandsen, Denmark, 1953), Zh. Pa-rizo (France, 1954), Stampar (A. Stampar, Yugoslavia, 1955), M. Katspshak (Poland, 1957), Parran (T. Parran, USA, 1958), Charlz (J. Charles, Great Britain, 1962), R. Debra (France, 1964), K. Evang (Norway, L966), Soper (F. L. Soper, USA, 1967), I. Harvat (Czechoslovakia, 1968), Mudalyar (A. L. Mudaliar, India, 1970), Ozhale (E. Aujaleu, France, 1971), Godber (G. Godber, Great Britain, 1972), Nobeti (K. Nobechi, Japan, 1973), M. Kapdau (Brazil, 1974), B. V. Petrovsky (USSR, 1975), Ramalin-gasvami (V. Ramalingaswami, India, 1976), Kanaperiya (G. And. Sapa-peria, Italy, 1977), Kambornak (F. J. C. Camboiirnac, Portugal, 1978), Reksed (V. of Rexed, Sweden, 1979), Halter (S. Halter, Belgium, 1980), Dogramachi (I. Dogramaci, Turkey, 1981).
The award Shushi and the provision on it were founded in 1966 at the 19th session of the World assembly of health care in memory of the first regional director of WHO for the countries of East Mediterranean A. T. Shusha (A. T. by Shousha, 1891 — 1964). The award is awarded for the most essential contribution to any problem of health care of the countries of East Mediterranean which doctor A. T. Shusha presented to WHO. The award consists of a bronze medal (fig. 3) and a reward (1000 Swiss francs) due to percentage accumulation of the capital consisting of voluntary contributions to the specified fund. Except an award, percentage accumulation are periodically used for delivery of grants for carrying out scientific research in a size which is not exceeding 5000 Swiss francs. According to the provision on fund of the award Shushi and amendments to it adopted in 1979, committee of fund the chairman, vice-chairmen and one member of Executive committee of WHO, and also the CEO of WHO as the secretary of committee are a part to-rogo, at a private meeting considers all candidates proposed for winning of the award and one of them recommends to Executive committee of WHO for the statement. The award is handed at a regular session of the World assembly of health care during one of its plenary sessions.
Awards of Shushi are conferred: Kamal (A. M. Kata!, Egypt, 1968), Afridi (M. of K. Afridi, Pakistan, 1969), Sa-bikh Al-Vakhbi (Sabih Al-Wahbi, Iraq, 1970), Shamseddin M. of X. Mofpdi (Chamseddine M. H. Mofidi, Iran, 1971), El Jalavani (A. El Hal aw ani, Egypt, 1972), Mansour Hasib (Mansour Haseeb, Sudan, 1973), Mohamed Taib Hashisha (Mohamed Taieb Hachicha, Tunisia, 1974), Roushan (G. R. Roashan, Afghanistan, 1975), Ramsay (N. Ramzi, Syria, 1976), Ahmed Abdallakh Ahmed (Ahmed Abdallah Ahmed, Egypt, 1977), Ali M. Fakhro (Ali M. Fakhro, Bahrain, 1978), Riad Ibrahim Hussein (Riad Ibrahim Husain, Iraq, 1979), Hassan (C. K. Hasan, Pakistan, 1980), Imam Zagloul Imam (Imam Zaghloul Imam, Egypt, 1981). Parizo's award was founded in 1969 in memory of the prominent fr. scientist Zh. Parizo for works in the field of social hygiene (social aspects of tuberculosis, veins. diseases, protection of a materrshstvo and childhood, mental health, dignity. educations). The fund of an award was founded Marselle Parisot by Zh. Parizo's spouse with seed capital in 50 000 Swiss francs and the right to accept gifts and property according to the will. From 1969 to 1975 interest income of fund were used for the organization of lectures during the World assembly of health care. Since 1976. The executive committee of WHO of times in 2 years awards grants for carrying out scientific research in the field of social hygiene and health care. According to the procedure one of regional committees of WHO (serially) offers three candidates. Committee of fund, 5 members elected by Executive committee of WHO from among the members to the period which is not exceeding term their authority in Executive committee are a part to-rogo, and the CEO of WHO as the secretary of committee recommend to Executive committee of WHO of one scholar from among three candidates stated above. Before decision-making the committee of fund coordinates with WHO advisory committee on scientific research of a subject, offered by candidates. Upon completion of scientific research the scholar reports at the plenary session of the World assembly of health care on results then it is handed a bronze medal (fig. 4). The first grant of Parisot was awarded to professor Vakhdan (N. Wahdan, Egypt, 1976). In 1978 this grant was awarded Bonifation (M. by F. Bonifacio, Philippines), in 1980 — Standardu (K. L. Standard, Jamaica).
Except these four P. and., which are under authority of WHO, there is some other the awards and medals awarded by various committees under which authority funds are. However their belonging to the international category is not conventional.
Minkowski's award is founded in 1966. The European association on studying of diabetes in honor of the large physiologist O. Minkowski who made a valuable contribution to studying of a diabetes mellitus, exchange uric to - you, a pathogeny of gout and in other sections of a metabolism in a human body. The award consists of a reward (10 000 Deutsche Marks) and certificates; it is awarded by annually European association on studying of diabetes to the persons aged up to 40 years which executed scientific research and living in Europe.
The award of Brogi is founded in 1966 by board of governors of the World organization of gastroenterologists in honor of the famous Belgian gastroenterologist G. Brogi (George Vgo-hee, 1877 — 1957). The award consists of a medal and a reward (100 amer. dollars) time in 4 years on the World congress of gastroenterologists is also awarded. The country, in the territory a cut passes the congress, elects the most famous specialist - gastro-enterologa which addresses the congress with a lecture then it is handed a medal and a reward.
Ehrlich award is founded in 1929 in honor of the outstanding researcher P. Ehrlich who made a big contribution to biology, chemistry, experimental pathology and therapy. The fund of an award of Ehrlich was created in 1929 by Hedwiga Ehrlich — P. Ehrlich's spouse. In 1952 the provision on fund of an award of Ehrlich was revised. The name of his friend — the famous chemist Ludwig Darmsted-ter was added to a name of Ehrlich (Ludwig Darmstaedter, 1846 — 1927). Ehrlich's award — Darmstedtera is awarded annually for outstanding achievements in the field of chemotherapy, bacteriology, immunology, hematology and a research on malignant new growths. The main award is awarded in each even year and consists of a reward (50 000 Deutsche Marks) and a gold medal. In odd years additional awards (2 — 4), are awarded by preferential young scientist. The awards conferred this get a silver medal everyone and the corresponding part of a reward, total amount to-rogo makes 50 000 Deutsche Marks.
The personalized award of Nativel is founded in 1971 in commemoration of century from the date of allocation in a crystal type of glycosides of a foxglove in honor of the researcher Nativel (Claude-Adolphe Nativelle, 1812 — 1889). The award aims to draw attention to carrying out clinical and therapeutic trials on cardiovascular diseases. Winning of the award is carried out time in 3 years by committee of fund of an award of Nativel on art and medicine.
Claude Bernard's award is founded in 1969. The European association on studying of a diabetes mellitus in honor of the French scientist - fiziolo - a hook. Bernard who made a big contribution to studying of metabolism of carbohydrates. The award consists of a reward (2000 fr. francs), a medal and the certificate, is awarded by annually European association for an essential contribution to development of a problem of a diabetes mellitus.
The gold medal of Pasteur is founded in 1892. Swedish about-vom medical sciences in honor of the outstanding scientist — the chemist and the biologist Pasteur. The medal is awarded each 10 years to the scientist of any nationality for development of scientific problems on bacteriology and hygiene.
The gold medal of Kotenius is founded in 1789. The German academy of researchers of natural sciences in honor of her director Kotenius (Christian Andreas Cothenius, 1709 — 1798). The fund of an award was created at the expense of a posthumous gift of X. To use Kotenius bequeathing percentage accumulation for award of a medal of 1 times in 2 years for achievements in applied medicine. Since 1954 the medal is awarded to outstanding researchers for complete cycles of works. In 1974 Kotenius's medal was awarded to the Soviet scientist — professor V. A. Ambartsumyan.
The gold medal of Levenguk is founded in 1875. Academy of arts and sciences of the Netherlands in honor of the famous Dutch scientist A. Levenguk. The medal is awarded once in 10 years to the scientist of any nationality for scientific developments on microbiology.
The Nobel Prize for the most important opening in the field of physiology and medicine was founded in 1896 (see Nobel Prizes).
Table 2. The PERSONALIZED AWARDS of the USSR ACADEMY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES AWARDED In 1947 — 1980. For the BEST SCIENTIFIC WORKS in the field of MEDICINE
Table 2 (continuation)
the Personalized awards of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences awarded in 1947 — 1980 for the best scientific works in the field of medicine
Table 2 (continuation)
the Personalized awards of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences awarded in 1947 — 1980 for the best scientific works in the field of medicine
Bibliography: Outstanding Soviet surgeons are Winners of the Lenin award, under the editorship of L. V. Mysko, Kharkiv, 1977; Nellie of N and I. V. Scientists-physicians is the first winners of the Lenin award, Owls. sensible okhr., No. 4, page 51, 1973; Handbook of resolutions and decisions of the world health assembly and executive board, v. 1, p. 561, Geneva, WHO, 1973, v. 2, p. 233, 1979; World dictionary of awards and prizez, L., 1979.
I. D. Ladny, E. K. Ponomar; author of the tab. I. V. Egorysheva.