AUTOINFECTION

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AUTOINFECTION (Greek autos + infection; synonym: autogenic, endogenous infection) — the disease caused by own conditionally pathogenic microbic flora of an organism. Activators A. — various microorganisms, constantly vegetans on skin and mucous membranes of respiratory and digestive paths, generative organs, a conjunctiva (see Mikroflor of the person). The greatest value as activators A. have various coccal forms, especially strepto-and staphylococcus, colibacillus, proteas and a pyocyanic stick, and also some fungi. The most often autoinfektsionny processes develop in a pharynx, almonds, a worm-shaped shoot, a large intestine, a conjunctiva, a bronchial tree, easy and uric ways.

Under the influence of various factors reducing a barrier role of skin and mucous membranes these optionally pathogenic microorganisms can cause both limited local, and the generalized process proceeding with bacteremia (see) and secondary metastatic centers.

Separate types of dermatitis, pustulous damages of skin, nasopharyngites, appendicitis, some colitis, bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, tsistopiyelonefrita, otitises, cholecystitises, and also many forms of sepsis belong to autoinfections. Conditions of emergence of autoinfektsionny processes are very diverse. Various external influences (mechanical, physical, chemical), the disturbances of internal environment of an organism which happened under influence hron, somatic diseases (a diabetes mellitus, cancer, diseases of blood, avitaminosis, etc.), can lead to disturbance of the barrier devices protecting body tissues from hit in them microbic flora.

In genesis And. easing or a perversion of physiological functions of an organism, disturbances of an innervation leading to dysfunction of various sphincters and muscular walls of the hollow bodies containing conditionally pathogenic bacterial flora are of great importance. Disturbances of normal movement of contents and stagnation of the last along with damage of anti-infectious barriers lead to development of autoinfektsionny processes. Quite often And. joins dystrophic disturbances of fabrics, napr, at a neyroparalitkchesky keratitis, decubituses, trophic ulcers. A number of infectious diseases, such as flu, measles, whooping cough, a viral hepatitis, can be followed by an aggravation And. Prolonged use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline row, changes normal bacterial symbiosis in an organism, leads to development of the so-called dysbacteriosis which is quite often the cornerstone And.

Special value A. has at impact on an organism of ionizing radiation. The last lead to considerable easing of natural immunity, in particular to decrease in phagocytal activity of blood that leads to development And. Immunity at And., as a rule, happens unsterile, reflecting the fact of transition of infectious process to former «peaceful» symbiosis.

It should be noted that the division of infections on endogenous and exogenous is rather conditional. So, e.g., arisen it is exogenous quinsy or pneumonia can pass into chronically proceeding diseases — tonsillitis, and also the bronchiectasias capable to recur repeatedly on an endogenous basis. And, on the contrary, the person having an autoinfektsionny disease can become a source of mass infection of people around. From patients And. persons with the open staphylococcal centers (epidemiologically) are the most dangerous, especially with suppurations of skin, and also a respiratory disease since their pathological allocations pollute the environment, objects also can cause the group outbreaks of infectious diseases, is more often than intrahospital. Perhaps also hit of activators on foodstuff owing to their processing by persons, suffering And. skin or respiratory organs. According to I. V. Davydovsky, the role of exogenous infections more and more falls, and specific weight And. increases. Especially frequency increased And. in connection with broad and irrational use of himiopreparat and steroid hormones. See also Infection .



Bibliography: Davydovsky I. V. The doctrine about an infection, M., 1956.

V. I. Pokrovsky.

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