AUTOCLAVE (according to GOST 17726-72 — a steam sterilizer) — the device for sterilization by saturated water vapor under pressure.
On a design And. happen vertical (AV-75, AV-20), horizontal (AG-2, AG-100), figurative and cupboard (ASh-250A, ASh-380, AShDV-250A, etc.).
And. use for bandaging material sterilization, the operational linen, surgical instruments, various mediums, a laboratory glassware infected material, injection solutions and also in the industry by production of herbicides, dyes, for receiving non-ferrous and valuable metals, curing of rubber and for conservation of products.
Main details And. (fig.) — water steam (4) and sterilizing cameras. As a rule, they represent a uniform welded assembly, but are separated functionally. It gives the chance to block intake of steam in the sterilizing camera for the period of loading, ejection and unloading And. and automatically to support working pressure. The water steam-heating chamber is closed by a massive pig-iron or steel cover (1) with a rubber gasket (2). Both cameras are placed in a metal casing (5). which is attached to a support (9) and it is isolated inside, in the bottom, by asbestos (7). In an upper part of the sterilizing camera openings (3) for steam are poyasoobrazno located. For control of work And. the manometer (13), the safety valve (15), water gage glass or a gage valve (11) and system of the cranes regulating receipt in the device of water (10) through an airtight mouth (12) and providing removal of steam, air and condensate (8, 14) serve. And. it is equipped with the devices which are automatically supporting predetermined pressure and also the ejector and the filter for drying of the sterilized material. To heat water in And. it is possible on gas and electric burners; in modern And. tube electric heaters which depending on volume are built in And. have power from 1 to 10 kw and more.
Sterilizing and water steam cameras in modern And. produce from stainless steel, a detail of drain, gage, trigger cocks and safety valves — from brass.
Principle of operation of the autoclave. In the water steam-heating chamber pour a certain amount of water (on 2/3 heights of water gage glass), edges, heating up, begins to boil; steam which is formed at the same time through numerous openings comes to the sterilizing camera. Thanks to hermetic obstruction of couples accumulates in it, pressure and temperature as a result increases that provides destruction of microorganisms. Medical And. allow to make pressure sterilization to 2,5 kgfs/cm 2 at a temperature up to 138 °. In many And. upon termination of sterilization vacuum to 200 — 400 mm of mercury will be created., making drying of sterile material. After dumping of pressure and cooling And. unload. In some And. loading and unloading are made from the different parties (bilateral sterilizers). Big And., intended for sterilization of injection solutions in industrial conditions, are supplied with the automated systems providing implementation of the program of sterilization.
Exist also And. without steam generator. They are used for sterilization of the traffic jams, ampoules, bottles and other materials applied at conservation of blood. Steam comes to them from an external source.
Before operation And. it is necessary to check operability of the manometer, the strainers and lambs fixing a cover, safety of a rubber gasket, a pritertost of cranes, an integrity of water gage glass. Sterilization in And. it has to be made by specially trained personnel according to «Service regulations of the vessels working under davleiiy». And. establish in spacious, pure, light rooms with ventilation; store in the closed not heated room. During the transportation And. pack into a waterproof film and place in a wooden box.
Bibliography: Massover A. M. Medical autoclaves, M. 1960.
V. I. Belkevich.