AUDIOLOGY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

AUDIOLOGY (Latin audire to hear + grech, logos the doctrine) — the doctrine about hearing. Subject and contents modern clinical And. studying of an etiology and pathogeny of defeats of acoustical function, differential and their topical diagnosis, methods of treatment, prevention, and also functional compensation is. For the solution of these tasks And. is based on wide use of the last achievements of acoustics, physiology and morphology of acoustical system.

And. — young industry of knowledge. It was issued in independent discipline in 1949 at the International audiological conference in Stockholm. However in the USSR practical organizational bases And. also speeches were put already at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in special facilities for wounded and contused with a hearing disorder. In these institutions questions of the organization of a complex research and treatment with involvement of various specialists — neuropathologists, psychiatrists, logopedists, physiologists etc. were developed. After the war in other countries these organizational principles were used during creation of so-called audio of the logical centers.

In the USSR questions A. physiology of I. P. Pavlov, in laboratory of acoustics and phonetics Ying-that defectology of Academy of pedagogical sciences of the USSR, at institutes of hygiene and occupational diseases, at research institutes of diseases of an ear, nose and throat and some LOR-clinics is studied in the Commission on acoustics of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in laboratory of the sound analyzer Ying-that.

Practical work on And. includes: identification by means of a mass audiometriya of relative deafness at children and adults in an early stage when medical and preventive actions are most effective; differential diagnosis and the forecast of relative deafness, the choice like school for training, professional consultation, questions of hearing aid, selection of hearing aids, training in use of them and a training, reedukation of hearing (see), training in reading from lips; examination of relative deafness; carrying out explanatory work among the population.

Direct predecessor A. was surdology (see) — one of the oldest sections of medicine and pedagogics. The main task of a surdology consisted in studying of deafness and sharp degree of relative deafness which at children can be the reason of an underdevelopment of the speech and even dumbness.

Theoretical basis of the modern direction A. the doctrine of I. P. Pavlov from which positions the sound analyzer is considered as the difficult, but uniform anatomo-physiological system including along with a peripheral receptor in a snail the central acoustical routes and acoustical area of a cerebral cortex was.

To development And. in many respects introduction to practice of more perfect acoustic equipment for a research of hearing (tone and speech audiometers) and development of new differential and diagnostic audiometric tests — definition of a phenomenon of recruitment of loudness (the accelerated increase of loudness), acoustical adaptation, a differential differential threshold of intensity of tone, special tests of a speech audiometriya promoted (see. Audiometriya ).

Great success of functional microsurgery at an otosclerosis and at adhesive average otitis gives the known perspectives of extension of indications to operations on condition of more exact differentiation between disturbance of sound carrying out and sound perception. To this purpose with success the test of measurement of sensitivity of an acoustic organ is applied to ultrasound.

Important element A. is hearing aid (see), a cut often is the only means to facilitate hard of hearing perception of informal conversation of people around, and to children with the inborn or acquired at early age sharp relative deafness to create a possibility of development of hearing and the speech. Questions of prosthetics at early age (1 — 1,5 years) and the related use and development of the remains of hearing gained great theoretical and practical value. This complex problem is a subject of theoretical and pilot studies of audiologists, surdopedagog, akustik, designers. Questions A. are covered in the Bulletin of Otorhinolaryngology magazine.



Bibliography: Vulstein X. Slukhouluchshayushchy operations, the lane with it., M., 1972; Ermolayevv.G.Ilevina.L. Practical audiology, L., 1969, bibliogr.; Sagalovich B. M. and On to-ryvalova K.P. Acoustical perception of ultrasounds and its value for differential diagnosis of defeats of hearing, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 5, page 31, 1963; Temkin Ya. S. Air contusion of an ear, M., 1947, bibliogr.; Undrits V. F., Temkin Ya. S. and Neumann L. V. Guide to a clinical audiology, M., 1962.

Ya. S. Temkin.

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