ARTYUS Maurice

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
ARTYuS Maurice

ARTYUS Maurice (Arthus Nicolas Maurice, 1862 — 1945) — the French immunologist, one of founders of the doctrine about an anaphylaxis — theoretical fundamentals of allergology. Got an education in France. Professor, the doctor of medicine, he a long time managed department of human physiology medical f-that Lausanne un-that (Switzerland). In 1901 — 1907 held the same position in France (Lille, Marseille).

Range of research interests of M. Artyus was very wide. As the biochemist it in 1890 studied a role of calcium in enzymatic process of a blood coagulation and in curdling of milk. Offered sodium citrate as anticoagulant. Studied snake and bee poisons and their antidotes. Wrote textbooks on physiological chemistry, on human physiology and the monograph on physiology of microorganisms.

M. Artyus's works in the field of studying of a local anaphylaxis are most considerable. If Richet (C. Richet) in 1902 began the researches in the field of an anaphylaxis, applying to parenteral administration in an organism toxic antigens, then M. Artyus since 1903 studied according to A. Calmette's proposal action and nontoxic antigens (anti-toxic serum, fresh horse serum, ovalbumin, peptone, etc.). It the first described the phenomenon of local anaphylactic reaction at rabbits under the influence of repeated hypodermic introductions of a foreign protein which received afterwards his name (see. Artyusa phenomenon ).

In the original work «From an Anaphylaxis to Immunity» (1921) the scientist considered an anaphylaxis and immunity not as two absolutely various conditions of an organism and as one, anaphylactic, the state passing into another — immunity. It brought up a group of the famous scientists developing its doctrine; the Soviet physiologist V. L. Lashas was one of his first pupils.

Works: Injections of r£p6t6es de serum de cheval chez le lapin, C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris), t. 55, p. 817, 1903; La s6ro-anaphylaxie du lapin, Arch. int. Physiol., t. 7, p. 471, 1908—1909; De l’anaphylaxie ä l’immunit6, P., 1921.

Bibliography: And to A. D. General allergology, page 421, M., 1970; Lashas V. 100 years since the birth of Maurice Artyus, the Stalemate. fiziol, and ekspery. ter., t. 7, No. 4, page 94, 1963; Excerpts from classics in allergy, ed. by M. Sam ter, Columbus, 1969.

Yu. L. Guly.