ARTEFACT (Latin. artefactum artificially made) — the phenomenon observed at a research of an object unusual for this object and distorting results of a research. ARTEFACTS can arise owing to impact on subject of arbitrary factors, non-compliance with the established rules, instructions, and also as a result of organizational, methodical and technical errors. In these cases ARTEFACTS are observed at histologic, histochemical, bakterioskopichesky, bacteriological researches as a result of the wrong fixing and dehydration, and also because of defects of preparation of drugs during the receiving cuts, filling, coloring, production of histochemical reactions. In tissue specimens And. there can be microorganisms from tools, glasses, from dyes, air and water. And. there can be a reduction of volume of cells, kernels, emergence in drugs of separate inclusions, the hemolysis of blood caused by washing of fabrics water in the course of section. Such And. are observed at a research of the material withdrawn from corpses and also at a biopsy and preparation of smears (see. Microscopic methods of a research , Histologic methods of a research ).
And. can arise at autoradiography (see), submicroscopy (see), X-ray analysis (see). So, And. on roentgenograms can be caused by defects of films, plates or X-ray intensifying screens, and also technical errors of photo processing. Artificial teneobrazovaniye on roentgenograms can be mistakenly regarded as morbid conditions (changes, inflammatory processes, etc.) or foreign bodys. And. a similar origin can be also in spectrography, different types of the photo used with the illustrative and research purposes.
In court. - medical practice meet And. in the form of hit of foreign particulates in the objects intended for microscopic or other laboratory examination (a soot or particles from the charred corpses), metallizations of edges of wounds from section tools when the research for identification of metal of the tool is conducted, the Crimea the injury is done, and also at intake of toxic agents from the preserving solutions in the objects directed for court. - the chemical analysis, etc. Besides, exist And., reproduced with the prejudiced purpose: artificially caused or supported diseases or damages, and also separate symptoms of diseases (see. Artificial diseases , Mutilation ).
K A. it is not necessary to carry deviations from a usual picture of development of biological or pathological process, change of a corpse, the course of laboratory reactions etc., and also emergence of the changes imitating various phenomena and states. E.g., And. are not: the posthumous microbic invasion of internals of a corpse imitating intravital bacteremia pathogenic microbes; the site of posthumous drying of skin simulating an intravital graze; quickly coming posthumous autolysis of tissue of pancreas imitating an intravital necrosis; the formalin pigment in a reticuloendothelium of a liver or spleen postponed in the course of fixing of fabrics similar to hemozoin, etc.
Suspicion on And. arises at discrepancy of one some fact to other data obtained in the course of the researches or observations. Therefore for establishment of the true diagnosis (depending on an origin And.) the corresponding clinical laboratory or control (test) researches directed to its exception shall be applied.
Bibliography: Boyd D. A. Avtoradiografiya in biology and medicine, the lane with English, M., 1957, bibliogr.; Voyno-Yasenetsky M. V. and Shabotinsky Yu.M. Sources of mistakes at morphological researches, D., 1970, bibliogr.; Goldin L. S. Bases of the histologic equipment of a submicroscopy, M., 1963, bibliogr.; Zavarzin A. A. and Rumyantsev A. V. Kurs of histology, page 48, M., 1946; Merkulov G. A. Course of the patolo-gogistologichesky equipment, D., 1969, bibliogr.; Roskin G. I. ilevin-with about N L. B. Mikroskopicheskaya of the technician, M., 1957, bibliogr.; Uyemov A. I. Logical mistakes, M., 1958.
A. P. Zagryadskaya.