ARRHENIUS Svante Augustus

From Big Medical Encyclopedia
ARRHENIUS Svante Augustus

ARRHENIUS Svante Augustus (Arrhenius Svante August, 1859 — 1927) — shiyedskiya fizikokhimik and the scientist. Ended Stockholm un-t in 1883. S. Arrhenius's thesis about conductivity of solutions of electrolytes formed a basis for his theory of electrolytic dissociation which it published in the finished look in 1887.

For works on creation of this theory and its use in biochemistry, physiology, geochemistry the scientist was conferred the Nobel Prize (1903).

In 1889 for an explanation of reactions in gaseous medium S. Arrhenius offered the theory of activation of molecules and established mathematical dependence between the speed of response and temperature (see. Kinetics chemical ).

Since 1891 S. Arrhenius is a teacher, and since 1895 professor of the Higher technical school in Stockholm; in 1905 it was invited by the director Fizicheskogo in-that Nobel where worked until the end of life.

S. Arrhenius possesses also a number of researches in the field of astronomy, physics and chemistry, geophysics, meteorology, biochemistry, immunochemistry, physiology and biology. It attached special significance to studying of quantitative patterns of biological processes. Applying the law of mass action, determined a number of quantitative consistent patterns for composite reactions between toxins and antitoxins, for agglutination tests of bacteria, for processes of digestion and absorption. At the first Mendeleevsky congress in St. Petersburg submitted the mathematical analysis of data of I. P. Pavlov on secretion.

S. Arrhenius wrote a number of monographs, managements and popular scientific books, many of which are translated into Russian. It supported scientific bonds and the friendly relations with many scientists of the world. Together with the physiologist R. Tigerstedt he proposed I. P. Pavlov's candidate for receiving the Nobel Prize.

Works: Immunochemie, Lp z., 1907; Chemistry and modern life, the lane with English, JI., 1924; Quantitative laws in biological chemistry, the lane with English, M. — L., 1925.

Bibliography: Fleas M. A. Svante Arrhenius, in book: Elektrich. and elektrokhimich. properties of metals, the 2nd konf. on physical. - to chemical questions, page 6, L., 1928; Solovyov Yu. I. and Figurowski N. A. Svante Arrhenius (1859 — 1927), M., 1959.

V. P. Mishin.