From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ARMY MEDICAL COLLEGE (AMC) — the highest military-medical educational institution and research establishment, the main objectives to-rogo — training of medical officers for armed forces and scientific development of problems of military medicine.

Facade of the building of Management of Army medical college of S. M. Kirov.

For the first time soldier. - medical academies began to establish in the European countries at the end of 18 — the beginning of 19 century (Austria, Prussia, Russia). Unlike a medical f-tov un-that, training of doctors in the soldier. - medical academies had the expressed practical focus, especially in the field of surgery; therefore in the beginning they were called medicochirurgical academies. The first such academy was founded in Vienna in 1785 where within 2 years from junior (company) surgeons trained battalion surgeons for the Austrian army. The St. Petersburg and Moscow medicochirurgical academies were created in 1798 on base medicochirurgical schools (cm). They trained medical officers — regimental doctors (the term of training — 4 years). Unlike Western European, the St. Petersburg and Moscow medicochirurgical academies gave to the pets broader all-medical and theoretical preparation.

The Moscow medicochirurgical academy existed not for long: in 1804 it was closed, then recovered in 1808 as department of the St. Petersburg academy; in 1837 became independent again, and in 1842 it was closed finally. Among her professors there were eminent persons domestic medical and biol, sciences — E. O. Mukhin, K. F. Rulye, I. E. Dyadkovsky, D. I. Levitsky, etc. For life time the Moscow academy trained more than 2 thousand doctors.

The Vilensky medicochirurgical academy was organized in 1832 on the basis of medical f-that Vilensky un-that. It existed till 1842.

The St. Petersburg medicochirurgical academy in 1881 was renamed into Army medical college, and in 1918 — into Army medical college of RKKA. In 1935 the name of the outstanding figure of the Communist Party and the Soviet state S. M. Kirov was appropriated to academy. For merits in preparation the soldier. - medical shots and development of medical science the academy is awarded by the Order of Lenin (1954), an award of the Red Banner (1968), the Anniversary medal of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR and Council of ministers of the USSR in honor of the 50 anniversary of formation of the USSR (1972).

Active participation of her students in social and political events and revolutionary movement is very remarkable in the history of academy. So, in 60 — the 70th 19 century called student's library of academy «Jacobin club». Because of student's disorders in 1881 two younger courses of academy were dismissed, and in 1913 it was temporarily closed. Students of academy participated in work of revolutionary Marxist circles and the organizations: V. I. Ignatov — in the Release of Work group, V. N. Katin-Yar-tsev — in «The St. Petersburg union of fight for release of working class», N. A. Alekseev, F. V. Gusarov, V. P. A rubella, V. V. Kuybyshev, I. D. Orakhelashvili, etc. — in the RSDRP Bolshevist organizations.

The academy played an outstanding role in development of domestic medicine. In it for the first time in the history of the higher medical school were founded hospital surgical (1841) and hospital therapeutic (1842) clinics that created appropriate conditions for deep and comprehensive clinical training of students; the first-ever Ying t of practical anatomy (1846) is based, N. I. Pirogov was the director to-rogo; for the first time in our country independent departments and clinics were created: ophthalmology (1818), psychiatry (1847), pediatrics (1865), operational surgery with topographical anatomy (1871), hygiene and medical police (1865), the general and experimental pathology (pathological physiology) (1879), otorhinolaryngology (1893), orthopedics (1900), field surgery (1931), field therapy (1955), anesthesiology (1958), thermal defeats (1960). In 1929 from separate associate professor's courses the department of military and the soldier was for the first time created. - a dignity. disciplines, later received the name «Department of the Organization and Tactics of Medical Service».

In academy the foundation was laid for the higher female medical education (see), to the highest pharm, and vt. to education in Russia. At it in 1872 the «special female course for education of scientific midwifes» which was actually training female doctors of the general profile was founded; from 1808 to 1880 in its structure functioned vt. (skotovrachebny) department preparing vt. doctors for military department and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and pharm. the department which was carrying out training of pharmacists.

Played a significant role of VMA in formation and development of the domestic medical industry. Throughout a long time of professor-surgeons of academy (I. V. Buyalsky, N. I. Pirogov, etc.) were in combination managing directors of the St. Petersburg tool plant — of the only thing at that time in Russia of the enterprise producing surgical instruments (nowadays the Krasnogvardeets plant). After Great October socialist revolution by scientific VMA (V. I. Voyachek, P. A. Kupriyanov, H. N. Savitsky, etc.) together with designers of the plant many new original samples of medical devices and devices are created.

Soon after the basis the academy took the leading place in system of medical education and still is one of the best, the most equipped highest medical educational institutions of the country.

At foundation of academy in it there were 7 departments, in 50 their years became 18, and to 100-year anniversary — 33 departments and clinics. Considerably the number of departments and clinics of academy for years of the Soviet power in connection with expansion of tasks of preparation of military-medical shots for Armed Forces of the USSR and as a result of emergence of a number of the new industries of medical science and military medicine increased. To the 150 anniversary in VMA there were 50 departments and clinics.

In pre-revolutionary time training of listeners and scientific activity in academy answered practical requests the soldier a little. - medical services and to essential problems of medical providing troops. According to the statement of the chief of the Head military and sanitary department of PKKA 3. P. Solovyova, the academy as military school was that only according to the name and regimentals of students. Development of theoretical fundamentals of military medicine, teaching the sciences necessary for the medical officer did not take place in academy.

In Soviet period of VMA became original scientific and training center of military medicine, activity to-rogo is directed to permission of Armed Forces of the USSR of scientific problems, urgent for medical providing, and training of medical officers (see. medical officer ). Educational process gained necessary focus according to problems of training of the medical officer and practical requests of medical providing troops. The departments of social sciences providing training of listeners in the field of the Marxist-Leninist theory and a number of departments the soldier were created. - a medical profile, including military hygiene, the general and military epidemiology, physiology of military work, etc.

Clinical case of Army medical college of S. M. Kirov (former Obukhovsk hospital).

Since 1847 along with implementation of problems of primary medical preparation also improvement of medical officers in various fields of medicine is carried out to academies. Especially the particularly important is the direction in educational activity became in Soviet period. Since 1922 systematic posting of medical officers to academy on improvement began. For this purpose in its structure advanced training courses were founded. But full reorganization of all system soldier. - medical educations occurred in the period of the Great Patriotic War when, as a matter of experience medical ensuring fighting of Armed Forces of the USSR, training of administrative board of medical service of army connections and operational associations was assigned to academy also along with primary training of medical officers.

Under the resolution of the State committee of defense of the USSR adopted in November, 1942 as a part of VMA three faculties were created: command and medical to lay down. - professional, and primary training of the senior doctors of regiments. The first two faculties with the biennial term of training intended for preparation from medical officers of chiefs of medical service of army connections (associations) and highly skilled specialists organizers of the prof. and to lay down. a profile in various fields of military medicine. Further command and medical also to lay down. - professional, f-you were united in one f-t of improvement, were created also f-you primary profile training of medical officers for types of Armed Forces. In addition to departments and clinics, VMA has research laboratories where the most urgent problems of medical providing AF of the USSR are developed. At departments of academy well equipped educational offices, the museums, many exhibits are created to-rykh have great cognitive and historical and scientific value. Since 1957 in VMA the memorial museum lighting the main stages of its history is organized. The main library is one of the largest book-depositories of the country, it has in the funds apprx. 2 million volumes medical - biol, literatures, including there are a lot of rare, unique editions. Many-sided activity of academy is provided by divisions of service — experimental workshops, a vivarium with nursery of experimental animals, the central drugstore, printing house, the central clinical laboratory, etc. In academy the highly skilled scientific and pedagogical collective incorporating academicians and corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, honored workers of science, winners of Lenin and State awards of the USSR works. For life time in VMA more than 900 professors are prepared apprx. 25 thousand medical officers, and there took place improvement apprx. 18 thousand medical officers.

VMA value in development of domestic medical science is big. In academy many outstanding scientists — founders of the largest schools of sciences of the country worked: physicist V. V. Petrov, chemists of H. N. Zinin, A. P. Borodin, S. V. Lebedev, biologists K. M. Ber, N. A. Holodkovsky, E. N. Pavlovsky, anatomists and histologists P. A. Zagorski, V. L. Gruber, V. N. Tonkoye, A. A. Zavarzin, physiologists I. M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov, L. A. Orbeli, pharmacologists N. P. Kravkov, S. V. Anichkov, pathologists M. M. Rudnev, to W. W. Pasch of oozes, H. N. Anichkov, surgeons I. F. Bush, I. V. Buyalsky, N. I. Pirogov, N. V. Sklifosovsky, N. A. Velyaminov, V. A. Oppel, S. P. Fedorov, G. I. Turner, V. N. Shevkunenko, B. N. Shamov, P. A. Kupriyanov, therapists S. P. Botkin, V. A. Manassein, N. Ya. Chistovich, M. I. Arinkin, psychiatrists and neuropathologists I. P. Merzheevsky, I. M. Balinsky, V. M. Bekhterev, M. I. Astvatsaturov, V. P. Osipov, pediatricians of C. F. Hotovitsky, M. S. Maslov, hygienists A. P. Dobroslavin, G. V. Hlopin, microbiologists, infectiologists and epidemiologists D. K. Zabolotny, N. K. Rosenberg, I. I. Rogozin, otorhinolaryngologists N. P. Simanovsky, V. I. Voyachek, first heads and teachers of medical providing troops A. N. Grigoriev, P. I. Timofeevsky and B. K. Leonardov.

Scientific academies executed apprx. 30 thousand scientific works. The world recognition was gained by such classical works of domestic medical science as «The topographical anatomy illustrated by seen cuts in three directions through human corpses» N. I. Pirogova, «Reflexes of a brain» And. M. Sechenova, «Lectures about work of the main digestive glands» and «Twenty years' experience of objective studying of higher nervous activity (behavior) of animals» of I. P. Pavlov, «Clinical lectures» of S. P. Botkin, «Surgery of kidneys and ureters» S. P. Fedorova, «The guide to parasitology of the person with the doctrine about carriers of transmissible diseases» E. N. Pavlovsky, etc. In academy hundreds of textbooks on various industries of medicine are created. Scientific works of many scientists of academy are conferred Lenin and State awards. From 1811 to 1816 in academy «The general magazine of medical science» was issued. It was the Russia's first solid periodic medical publication, in Krom transfers of articles of foreign authors and original researches of domestic scientists were published. Attempts of the edition of periodic scientific magazines in academy were made repeatedly: «Magazine of medical and natural sciences» (1840 — 1842), «Notes in medical sciences» (1843 — 1849), «News of Army medical college» (1900 — 1917), «VMA military-medical magazine» (1930 — 1933). Since 1934 the academy systematically publishes collections of the scientific works executed at its departments and in clinics.

Specific aspect of activity of academy as lead agency in system the soldier. - medical educations and in development the soldier. - medical sciences participation of professors and teachers of academy in medical providing troops on battlefields was. They left in field army for practical work on assistance to wounded or for fight against epidemics of infectious diseases; after Great October socialist revolution carried out a role of specialists consultants, performing scientific management and the organization of medical providing troops for the specialty. From academy directed the specialized groups of strengthening created from her employees and listeners, a dignity to the battlefield. and surgical groups and even mobile hospital. The role of academy as center of preparation and improvement the soldier is big. - medical shots and as center of development the soldier. - medical sciences in days of the Great Patriotic War. Dozens of professors, teachers and graduates of VMA were directly involved in medical ensuring fighting of Armed Forces of the USSR. Many staff of academy headed medical service of fronts, armies, evacuation centers, and also was in them chief specialists. The scientific research executed by scientists of academy was used for improvement of quality of work the soldier. - medical services.

In the years preceding the Great Patriotic War expansion of scales of preparation of military-medical shots was required. In this regard were created Military meditsiiskaya RKKA academy in Kuibyshev (1939) and Naval medical academy in Leningrad (1940).

The Kuibyshev army medical college was created on the basis of local medical in-that. In its creation active part was taken by considerable number of professors and teachers of VMA of S. M. Kirov (M. N. Akhutin, V. A. Beyer, N. I. Bondarev, T. E. Boldyrev, N. I. Zavaltiin, V. V. Zakusov, I. A. Klyuss, A. N. Chistovich, etc.). to-rye headed a number of departments. In the Kuibyshev VMA there were several releases of medical officers, including accelerated. At the end of 1942 it was defunct.

Naval Medical Academy (NMA) in-that was organized on the basis of the 3rd Leningrad medical and Ying-that a dignity. - chemical protection of NKZ RSFSR for preparation and improvement of naval doctors. Among professors — chiefs of VMMA departments there were such leading scientific countries as K. M. Bykov, BB. 10. Dzhanelidze, N. I. Leporsky, A. V. Melnikov, A. L. Myasnikov, A. A. Nechayev, V. N. Chernigovsky, etc. In 1956 VMMA was combined with VMA of S. M. Kirov.

See also Medical education .

Bibliography: Bagdasaryan S. M. The facts and dates from activity of Military-medical academy of the Order of Lenin of S. M. Kirov (1798 — 1954), L., 1954; P. P Potters. Sketches of history of Army medical college during the postoctober period, L., 1968; History imperial Military-medical (former medicochirurgical) academies in hundred years 1798 — 1898, under the editorship of Ivanovskoye, SPb., 1898; Pavlovsky E. N. Army medical college of Red Army of G. M. Kirova in 140 years (1798 — 1933), L., 1940; Preysman A. B. Moscow medicochirurgical academy (historical sketch), M., 1961, bibliogr.; Prozorov G. M. Materials for history of imperial Sanktpeter-burgsky medicochirurgical academy in memory of the 50 anniversary it, SPb., 1850; Development of science in academy in 50 years of the Soviet power, under the editorship of A. N. Maksimenkov, L., 1969.

A.S. Georgiyevsky.