ARMENIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC, Armenia, Automated workplace. SSR — the federal socialist republic which is a part of the USSR. It is located in the south of Transcaucasia. The area — 29,8 thousand km 2 , the population — 2606 thousand people (1972). The capital — Yerevan (818 thousand zhit., 1972). It is divided into 36 administrative regions. There are 21 cities of republican value.
Automated workplace. SSR is formed on November 29, 1920. From March 12, 1922 to December 5, 1936 was a part of the Transcaucasian federation. On December 5, 1936 directly was a part of USSR.
Automated workplace. SSR — the highland, apprx. 90% of the territory a cut is at the height more than 1000 m above sea-level, is located in a subtropical zone; because of a mountainous terrain, influence of the Black and Caspian seas differs in a variety of climate. In a flat and foothill part climate dry, continental with hot summer and in moderately cold winter (the maximum temperature in July 42 °, in January — 5 °). In middle mountains a temperate climate (average temperature in July — August 18 °, in January from — 2 ° to — 8 °). On highlands (height of 2000 — 3000 m) a frigid climate (average temperature in the summer 10 — 15 °, in the winter from — 9 to — 14 °, an absolute minimum — 46 °).
Having taken a way of socialist development, Armenia for short historical term became the republic of the developed diversified industry and the mechanized agriculture, high culture and advanced science.
In the industry the leading place is taken by mechanical engineering and metal working, the chemical, light, food industry, nonferrous metallurgy. In agriculture, at the limited territory, it is cultivated apprx. 75% of the range of the main pages - x. the cultures which are grown up in the territory of the USSR. The livestock production specializes in cultivation of cattle and sheep.
By 1940 the Automated workplace. SSR became the republic of continuous literacy. In the republic there are 12 higher educational institutions in which in 1973/74 academic year studied apprx. 53 thousand students, and 64 average special educational institutions where 51,1 thousand persons studied.
Proceeding from climatic and geographical conditions, the Automated workplace. SSR is divided into 5 medico-geographical areas — Central, Shirak, Northeast, Sevan and Syunik.
The central district occupies 9 administrative regions and Yerevan, is generally located in the territory of the Ararat plain, densely populated. The leading industries of the Central district — chemical, mechanical engineering, wine and cognac, canning, easy. In agriculture wine growing and fruit growing, cultivation a vegetable - melon cultures, tobacco growing, the livestock and grain direction prevail. Annual average air temperature 10 — 11 °, in the Ararat valley 4 — 6 °, in foothill areas the maximum temperature 30 — 40 °, minimum — 30 — 31 °. Annual average rainfall makes 230 — 300 mm in valley areas and 400 — 700 mm in a foothill part.
The Shirak district occupies 6 administrative regions. The leading industries — textile and knitted, mechanical engineering, sugar; the leading industries of agriculture — livestock production, grain-growing, beet breeding. Annual average temperature 5,5 — 6,5 °. Quantity of annual average rainfall — 350 — 700 mm.
The northeast area occupies 7 administrative regions. The industry — nonferrous metallurgy, chemical, mechanical engineering, oil - cheese-making, canning and forest. Primary branches of agriculture — fruit growing, wine growing, tobacco growing, subtropical cultures, livestock production, potato growing. Annual average temperature 6 — 12 °. Annual average rainfall — 500 — 800 mm.
The Sevan district is characterized by development of the food industry, including fish; in agriculture — development of livestock production, grain-growing, tobacco growing, potato growing. Annual average temperature 4 — 6 °. Annual average rainfall — 380 — 700 mm.
The Syunik district occupies 6 administrative regions. Primary branches of the industry — nonferrous metallurgy, electrical power, food, including canning.
In agriculture the livestock production, gardening, wine growing, fruit growing and cultivation of subtropical cultures prevails. Annual average temperature 5 — 14 °. An average amount of precipitation in a year of 260 — 700 mm.
For years of the Soviet power the population of the republic increased by 3 times. According to a census of 1970, 88,6% of the population are made by Armenians. In the republic there live also Azerbaijanians, Russians, Kurds, Ukrainians, Greeks, etc. On average population density (88,4 people on 1 sq.km) she takes the 2nd place in the USSR (after Moldova). Apprx. 96% of the population lives at the height more than 800 m above sea-level. Because of a mountainous terrain irregularity in accommodation of the population is noted: 42% of all population are concentrated in the Ararat plain where the industry and agriculture are most developed. Here average population density makes apprx. 360 people on 1 km 2 .
Average life expectancy — 70 years. The population of the republic given about the natural movement are presented in tab. 1.
For years of the Soviet power along with social and economic and cultural achievements the republic made great progress in the organization of health care. In comparison with the pre-revolutionary period mortality of the population decreased almost by 5 times, incidence considerably decreased, many epidemic diseases (smallpox, plague, cholera, malaria) are liquidated, also other infectious diseases are minimized.
So, in pre-revolutionary Armenia there was a high incidence of tuberculosis. Therefore in the first years of the Soviet power fight against tuberculosis was the focus of attention of bodies of health care. Thanks to improvement of social and economic conditions of the population, wide and purposeful to lay down. - professional, work incidence and tuberculosis mortality considerably decreased.
For the purpose of early tuberculosis detection the coverage of the population fluorographic inspection increases every year.
Before establishment of the Soviet power epidemic diseases and various social diseases were the leading cause of death. In a crust, time structure of incidence in the Automated workplace. SSR is similar to structure of incidence in the advanced countries. Among the reasons of mortality first place in 1973 was won by cardiovascular diseases, the second — diseases of a respiratory organs and the third — malignant new growths.
The organization of health care
the First medical provincial management in the Yerevan province was organized in 1851. In 1874 in each county there was 1 district doctor, 1 midwife and 2 doctor pupils. In 1904 in the province 14 rural medical sites were formed, in each of which were on average 57 760 zhit. 0,47 doctors were the share of 10 000 inhabitants; 87% of inhabitants were not provided with stationary medical aid. In rural areas of establishment of a preventive and sanitary and anti-epidemic profile were absent. For years of the Soviet power the hospital help to the population, especially rural areas considerably improved. Sharply the number of hospitals and hospital beds increased. If in 1919 in Armenia there were 6 medical institutions on 212 beds (0,7 beds on 10 000 zhit.), in 1973 in the republic 236 medical institutions on 23 730 beds functioned (87,0 beds on 10 000 zhit.).
Growth of bed fund in Armenia for years of the Soviet power is specified in tab. 2.
Development of hospital network is characterized by construction of large hospitals in which there is a specialized medical aid. The 800-bed Republican hospital of V. I. Lenin, a hospital of emergency medical service in Yerevan, 600-bed tubercular hospital in Ellare, etc. treat such hospitals.
In a crust, time of one of the tasks facing bodies of health care the organization of rendering specialized medical aid to country people is. Therefore in the Automated workplace. SSR where there is no regional division, in all rural areas large multi-field regional hospitals with specialized departments and laboratories function. In a number of areas interdistrict specialized departments, clinics which render the qualified medical aid to residents of the next areas are organized.
If necessary the country people receive the qualified medical care on all main specialties in republican hospital, and also in clinical departments of research institutes.
Specialization of bed fund in medical institutions of system of the Ministry of Health is presented in tab. 3.
Distribution of beds in medical institutions in 1973 is presented in tab. 4.
In the Automated workplace. SSR much attention is paid to the organization of the specialized help to patients with cardiovascular diseases. The scientific research institute of cardiology and cordial surgery functions, in Krom scientific research and the most difficult surgeries but an occasion of various heart diseases and vessels are conducted. In Republican hospital flebologichesky department, in the 2nd hospital of Yerevan — department for treatment of diseases of arteries is developed. The special service on rendering emergency medical service at acute diseases and damages of vessels is organized. In total in the republic there are 494 cardiorheumatological beds and 190 beds of cardiovascular surgery.
The oncological help to the population extends and improved. The scientific research institute of a radiology and oncology conducts research, gives methodical help to medical institutions of the cities and rural areas of the republic, will organize dispensary observation behind the population and gives the qualified medical help to persons in need. The Republican oncological clinic in Yerevan and clinics in Leninakan and Kirovakan functions. Besides, in various cities and rural areas of the republic 54 oncological offices work. The bed fund of stationary institutions of this profile makes 280 beds.
Events for development of the ortopedo-traumatologic help to the population in the cities and the regional centers of the republic are held. In Yerevan the burn center is open. In all cities and a number of the regional centers in policlinics the traumatologic offices staffed by surgeons-traumatologists are open. Specialization of the surgical help is carried out also in other fields of surgery. The bed fund for urology is expanded, department for treatment of proctologic patients is organized.
A lot of work on the organization of resuscitation and anesthesiology service is carried out. Intensive care unit and anesthesiology are open in Republican hospital of V. I. Lenin, in hospital of ambulance and in scientific research institute of cardiology and cordial surgery.
Further development was gained by specialization of the therapeutic help. In 1972 in the republic 4 gastroenterological departments provided with all necessary means for special inspection of patients are organized.
Are open special department at Republican hospital for the organization of the qualified help and treatment of allergological patients and an allergological office at advisory policlinic.
For the purpose of early detection and improvement of treatment of patients with endocrine diseases at Republican hospital department on 60 beds is organized.
Much attention is paid to creation and improvement of activity of dental institutions. In the republic 785 stomatologists and dentists work, at the same time the gain of these specialists occurs generally at the expense of stomatologists. Dental policlinics in the cities of Leninakan, Kirovakan, Echmiadzin, Oktemberyan, Kafana and polyclinic departments in Abovyansky, Spitak, Hrazdan and other areas are open. The quantity of dental offices and departments at medical institutions, and also school dental surgeries increases. Total number of offices in 1973 made in institutions of the M3 system - 284.
Extra hospital help. For years of the Soviet power the wide network of ambulatornopoliklinichesky institutions is created that considerably improved rendering medical aid to the population. So, if in 1913 there were 15 out-patient clinics, then in 1928 already 82; in 1973 in the republic 474 out-patient and polyclinic establishments worked.
Till 1920 in villages of the Yerevan province there were 14 infirmaries, in 1973 — 651. Such large number of infirmaries is caused by a mountainous terrain of the republic — in mountainous areas small settlements, hardly accessible with a small number of inhabitants, are located.
In the republic specialized clinics are created: antitubercular, oncological, dermatovenerologic, psychoneurological, endocrinological and physiotherapy exercises.
Service of women and children. From first years after establishment of the Soviet power in the republic the great value is given to protection of motherhood and the childhood.
In 1922 at NKZ Automated workplace. SSR created department of protection of motherhood and the childhood. As in the republic there was a high child mortality, fight against child mortality became the main task of this department. The big role in decrease in child mortality was played by women's and children's consultations which were created in all cities and areas of the republic. In 1973 in the republic 232 women's and children's consultations, 125 milk kitchens, hundreds of a children's day nursery gardens functioned. Medical service of children in 1973 was carried out by 1241 pediatricians. Dynamics of number of pediatricians and quantity of beds for children in medical institutions from 1940 to 1973 is given in tab. 5.
In the cities and regional centers of the republic maternity homes and delivery rooms are open.
In 1973 there were 65 maternity homes and delivery rooms on 2725 beds.
Treatment-and-prophylactic help to female mothers is given by 577 doctors, 797 feldsherits-midwifes and 2657 midwifes.
Medicinal help. In pre-revolutionary Armenia the population was insufficiently provided with the medicinal help. Drugstores were property of individuals and were trade enterprises. The population of rural areas where there were only 8 drugstores was especially insufficiently provided with the medicinal help. After establishment of the Soviet power all drugstores were nationalized. In the cities and areas new drugstores, and in the village — pharmaceutical points are constructed. In the republic in 1973 227 drugstores and 530 pharmaceutical points functioned.
Sanitarno - epidemiological service. In pre-revolutionary Armenia sanitary and hygienic conditions were extremely adverse. Often arose and quickly various epidemic diseases with high mortality extended.
From the first days of establishment of the Soviet power in the republic events for improvement of sanitary and hygienic conditions and anti-epidemic actions were held. The government and bodies of health care of the republic issued a number of decrees and the resolution, the decisions directed to improvement of a sanitary condition of the inhabited places were made. The resolution of the CEC and SNK USSR of December 23, 1933 was of great importance, on the basis to-rogo the State sanitary inspection was created.
In the republic in 1973 was 51 dignities. - epid, the station (from them 36 in rural areas) in which more than 2000 people, including 400 doctors, 94 engineer, the chemist and the biologist worked. In total dignity. - epid, stations are provided with motor transport, equipped with the equipment and the equipment for production of bacteriological, chemical and other researches up-to-date.
For years of the Soviet power as a result of carrying out nation-wide measures — improvements of living conditions of the population, increase in the general level of sanitary culture, improvement and sanitary improvement of the inhabited places, holding treatment-and-prophylactic actions — infectious incidence sharply decreased.
Decrease in incidence of a typhoid and acute intestinal infections resulted from putting into operation of water supply systems, the sewerage, treatment facilities, improvement of villages and cities, etc. It was also promoted by immunization of the population against these infections. In pre-revolutionary Armenia a specific place in regional pathology of the republic was held by malaria. For its elimination drainage of swamps and wetlands, protivoretsidivpy treatment of patients with malaria was carried out.
A lot of work in this direction was carried out by Tropical institute. As a result incidence of malaria sharply decreased: since 1959 isolated cases are registered, in 1971 2 brought in cases were revealed, and in 1972 — 1973 any case of malaria was not registered.
Sanatorium help. Automated workplace. SSR is rich with mineral sources, fields of dirt, medical clays, peat etc., beautiful climatic stations. In the republic there are more than 350 groups of mineral sources of the most various chemical composition and temperature with the general output to 22 billion l/year.
For years of the Soviet power on the basis of many sources the sanatorium institutions working under the scientific and methodical management of scientific research institute of balneology and physical methods of treatment are organized. Mineral waters of the resorts of Dzherm/uk (see), (see), Dilijan (see Resorts), Angkawang (see), etc. use Arzni universal recognition. In 1973 in the republic 72 sanatoria, rest house and boarding house functioned. In the M3 system 11 sanatoria for adults on 1500 beds and And specialized children's health resorts on 2125 beds were developed. Besides, there are pioneer the camp, tourist bases and dispensaries.
Health care workforce. For years of the Soviet power the number of medical staff in the Automated workplace. SSR considerably increased. In 1913 in Armenia there were 73 doctors (including tooth) and 153 people of paramedical staff; in 1973 in the republic 8639 doctors (from them 70,3% of women) and 21 398 people of paramedical staff worked.
Preparation of medical shots is conducted in Yerevan medical in-those, opened in 1922. In in-those there are 5 faculties — treatment-and-prophylactic, sanitary and hygienic, pediatric, dental and pharmaceutical. Improvement of doctors is carried out in republican in-those improvements of doctors and outside the republic (Moscow, Leningrad, etc.) · Growth of number of doctors and security of the population by them are specified in tab. 6.
Distribution of doctors on the main specialties is given in in tab. 7.
In pre-revolutionary Armenia there were no institutions on training of paramedical staff. In the first years of establishment of the Soviet power in Yerevan obstetric courses were open. The first medical school was organized in Yerevan in 1927. In 1972 in the republic 5 medical schools functioned (in Yerevan, Leninakan, Nathan, Dilijan and Vardenike). There are branches of the Yerevan medical school in Dzhermuk, the Yeghegnazdor district and branch of the Dilijan medical school in Kirovakan.
The number and distribution of paramedical staff on specialties are specified in tab. 8.
Scientific medical institutions. For upgrading of rendering; medical aids and solutions of urgent problems of health care in the Automated workplace. SSR is created wide network of scientific institutions of a medical profile. In the republic there are 9 research institutes, the Yerevan state medical institute and Institute of improvement of doctors.
Scientific medical institutions of the republic work in the following main directions: the organization and development of scientific and scientific and practical problems according to requirements of practical health care; development of new methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases; carrying out scientific research on the major theoretical and practical problems (treatment of cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors, development of actions for fight against infectious and viral diseases, researches in the field of hygiene of the environment, development of questions of health protection of women, mothers and newborns, and also questions of regional pathology).
In scientific research institute of cardiology and cordial surgery the technique of a research of breath and processes of oxidizing phosphorylation in a cardiac muscle in the conditions of clinic, a new way of definition of fibrinolitic and anti-fibrinolitic activity of blood, a tracer technique of definition of a fabric blood-groove of a myocardium, etc. are developed.
In scientific research institute of a radiology and oncology the method of the accelerated definition of carcinogenic activity of chemical compounds is developed.
The staff of scientific research institute of occupational health and occupational diseases set parameters of toxicity of dimethyl-acetyl-amine and its maximum allowable concentration in air of production rooms is proved.
Scientists-physicians developed the combined method of treatment of patients with epilepsy psychotropic and anticonvulsants, created a tromboelastograf of a new design, pay to studying of allergic diseases much attention, mastered techniques of receiving new blood preparations etc.
In medical higher education institutions and research institutes of the republic in 1973 140 doctors and 651 candidates of medical sciences worked apprx. 1200 scientists, from them.
A significant role in development of health care and medicine of the Automated workplace. SSR in the first years of the Soviet power was played by organizers of health care S. I. Ambartsumyan, S. M. Lazarev, G. M. Gardashyan, scientists-physicians V. M. Artsruni (anatomy), A.S. Kechek (surgery), G. Ya. Are-shyan (gynecology), A. G. Mirzaavakyan (surgery), A. A. Melik-Adamyan (surgery), O. A. Gabriyelyan (pediatrics), R. O. Eolyan (surgery), X. A. Petrosyan (traumatology), L. A. Oganesyan (history of medicine and therapy), And. B. Aleksanyan (epidemiology), L. A. Arutyunyan (general hygiene). In a crust, time the big contribution to development of medicine is made by corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences F. A. Fanardzhyan (radiology) and A. A. Megrabyan (psychiatry), corresponding members of AN of the Automated workplace. SSR S. A. Mirzoyan (pharmacology), And. X. Gevorkyan (surgery), R. P. Stamboltsyan (therapy), honored workers of science of professor A. T. Simonyan (therapy), P. L. Paronyan (surgery), S. S. Sharimanyan (surgery), X. N. Pirumov (parasitology), E. D. Blavatskaya (eye diseases), P. A. Markaryan (gynecology), etc.
Budget of health care of the Automated workplace. SSR for years of the Soviet power considerably increased: in 1925 it made 3,2 million rubles, in 1940 — 7,1 million rubles, in 1960 — 35,8 million rubles and in 1971 — 80,0 million rubles.
Table 1. The NATURAL MOVEMENT of the POPULATION of ARMENIA from 1913 to 1972 (on 1000 people)
Table 2. GROWTH of BED FUND IN the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC from 1922 to 1973.
Table 3. SPECIALIZATION of BED FUND IN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS of the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC
- Including beds in neurosurgical, traumatologic, orthopedic, urology, dental departments.
Table 4. DISTRIBUTION of BEDS IN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS of the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC in 1973.
Table 5. DYNAMICS of NUMBER of PEDIATRICIANS AND QUANTITY of BEDS FOR CHILDREN IN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS of the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC from 1940 to 1973.
Table 6. GROWTH of NUMBER of DOCTORS AND SECURITY with THEM of the POPULATION IN the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC in 1922 — 1973.
Table 7. The NUMBER of DOCTORS ON the MAIN SPECIALTIES IN the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC century 1973
Table 8. DISTRIBUTION of PARAMEDICAL STAFF ON the MAIN SPECIALTIES IN the ARMENIAN Soviet SOCIALIST REPUBLIC in 1973.
Bibliography: Ayriyan A. P. Atlas of rural health care of Armenia 1920 — 1965, Yerevan, 1967, bibliogr.; Aleksanyan A. B. The organization and development of epidemiological matter in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in 30 years (1920 — 1950), Works Erevansk. medical in-that, century 7, page 3, 1953; Vartanyan G. E.i Shakhoyan 3. X. Development of health care in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Yerevan, 1968; Health care in the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Stat. the reference book, under the editorship of 3. X. Shakhoyana, Yerevan, 1960; Markaryan P. A. Obstetric gynecologists - cheskaya pomopts to the population of Armenia in 40 years of the Soviet power, Yerevan, 1960; The Soviet Armenia in 50 years, Saturday. to become. materials, Yerevan, 1970.
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