ARGENTINA, Argentine Republic — the state in a South vost. parts of South America.
The area is 2,8 million km 2 , the population — 24,3 million people (1973).
In the administrative relation And. is divided into 22 provinces, 1 territory and 1 federal district. The capital — Buenos Aires (8353 thousand people, September, 1970). Ofits. language — Spanish.
And. — federal republic. The head of state — the president (it is chosen for 6 years); it uses large legislative powers.
The climate is caused by situation A. in three climatic zones (tropical, subtropical and moderate), existence on 3. a mountain barrier of the Andes and on V. — the Atlantic Ocean. In a tropical belt (on extreme S.-V.) climate wet and hot, in subtropics — wet, warm, in Darling. To Pampas — droughty with hot summer and in the cool winter, in Patagonia — semidesertic, cool.
And. — agrarian-industrial country. In agriculture the leading role is played by livestock production. By quantity of cattle And. occupies the fourth, and by quantity of sheep — the second place in the world. Annual slaughter of cattle makes 10 — 12 million heads, and clipped wool — up to 200 thousand tons a year. In crop production the leading industry is the grain farm. The main grain crops — wheat, corn, barley, oats. The leading industry is processing of page - x. raw materials. After World War II the mechanical engineering, oil-processing industry, ferrous metallurgy develops.
Population And. it was created by hl. obr. at the expense of the European immigrants. Over 80% are made by Argentineans. V A. there live also Italians, Ukrainians, Spaniards, Poles, Jews, etc. The Indian population makes 20 — 30 thousand persons. The ground mass (3/5) of the population lives on V. of the country, population density here — 20 people on 1 km 2 , on Yu. the countries — 1 people on 1 km 2 . In the cities over 70% of the population, live in Buenos Aires — nearly 1/3 population of the country. Data on the natural movement of the population are provided in the table.
V A. the diseases characteristic of economically developed countries are widespread — hron, not epidemic diseases (cardiovascular, psychological, oncological, etc.) and characteristic of developing countries — infectious and parasitic diseases.
Among infectious diseases which registration very incomplete, are most often noted went. - kish. diseases, flu, tuberculosis and para'zi-tare diseases. V A. the American trypanosomiasis is eurysynusic (see. Shagasa disease ) — in 1970 2296 cases were registered. In the central densely populated region diseases of a brucellosis (in some provinces about 80% of inhabitants are struck) are frequent.
Diseases of cardiovascular system, malignant new growths, vascular damages of a brain, a disease of the perinatal period and inborn defects of development, traumatism, pneumonia and bronchitis were the main reasons for death in 1970.
A health system in And. includes public sector, insurance on medical aid and services of private medical practitioners.
The central body of health care — the State secretariat of public health care — is a part of the Ministry of Social Welfare; 5 managements knowing various questions of health care are a part of the secretariat. In the medical relation the country is divided into 8 regions, in each of them there is a regional service of health care; regions are subdivided into areas and municipalities in which there is also the health service. Besides, various ministries, departments and the private organizations deal with issues of health care.
In 1971 in And. there were 2864 hospitals and other institutions of the stationary help on 133 847 beds (56 beds on 10 000 people of the population). About a half of all hospitals is concentrated in the capital and the large cities. The greatest number of beds was available in the general hospitals (91 730) and psychiatric (20 847). The extra hospital help in 1971 was out-patient departments of the state hospitals, 223 centers of health, 331 out-patient clinics, 2219 points of medical aid and other institutions. Besides, medical aid is rendered by private medical practitioners and various charitable (generally religious) organizations.
Work on protection of motherhood and the childhood was carried out in 1967 in 252 women's and 370 children's consultations which within a year were accepted by 40 822 pregnant women, 20 929 children aged up to one year and 122 352 children aged from 1 year up to 5 years. Doctors and the qualified midwifes accepted 136 207 childbirth.
Control for a dignity. - a gigabyte. state of environment carries out one of managements of the state secretariat.
Dignity. a condition of many inhabited places unsatisfactory. On suburbs of the large cities there are accumulations of hovels (so-called settlements of poverty). 71% of city dwellers live in houses with a water supply system, 35% — in houses with the sewerage. Due to growth of industrial production pollution of external environment sharply increased.
Anti-epidemic work is limited to hl. obr. vaccination of the population. In 1971 479 258 vaccination of BTsZh, 688 545 vaccination against poliomyelitis and 1 544 943 vaccination against smallpox were carried out.
In 1969 in And. 58 294 doctors (26 doctors for 10 000 people), including 32 996 doctors in public service worked; 13 737 nurses and 24 444 rooms of nurses. At 9 medical faculties of universities (Buenos Aires — 2, Cordoba — 2, La Plata, Corrientes, Mendoza, Rosario and Tucuman) in 1969/70 uch. 27 010 students studied year and 1822 doctors were let out. Besides, there were 6 dental, 6 pharmacological and biochemical f-comrades. Nurses study at 95 three year schools.
Medical scientific research is conducted at universities and research in-ta at National the scientific researcher - skom council (in Ying-those neurology, Ying-those biophysics, Pharmacological nauchio-research in-those and Medical research in-those of Mercedes and Martina Ferreira).
Among outstanding scientists And. — physiologist Bernardo Usse (Bernardo Houssay, 1887 — 1971), Nobel Prize laureate, foreign member of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.
The public expenditures for needs of health care in 1969 made 81 188 million peso (5% of all public expenditures), per capita — 3385 peso.
Bibliography:Dobrovolsky Yu. A . Health of world's population in the 20th century, M., 1968: Year-book of world sanitary statistics, 1967, t. 1, Geneva, WHO, 1971; Italo E. V., Lebedinsky M. and Palermo E. Zabolevaniye, malnutrition and poorly developed economy, Health care (Bucharest), No. 3, page 265, 1963; The Fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1965 — 1968), page 129, Geneva, WHO, 1973; Molina G. and. N about am I. F. Indicators of health, economy and culture in Puerto Rico and Latin America, Amer. J. publ. Hltli, v. 54, p. 1191, 1964.
I. I. Sluchevsky.