ARGENTAFFIN CELLS (Latin argentum silver + affinis akin, inherent; synonym: enterokhromaffinny, bazalnozernisty, yellow, Kulchitsky's cells) — the cells containing specific granules in cytoplasm capable to recover silver (in the dark, in the absence of any recovery agents) and the developing biogenic amines (serotonin).
For the first time And. to., found in a stomach of dogs and rabbits, R. Heidenhain described; N. K. Kulchitsky found them in intestines of dogs. And. to. occur at some invertebrates and at all species of vertebrate animals in a mucous membrane of a trachea, went. - kish. a path, in a pancreas, in an epithelium of bilious channels, vaginas, in a prostate. Suggest about development A.k. from primary gut or from elements of a nervous system. These cells found in intestines 10 — 18-day chicken embryos, 12 — 13 weeks embryos of the person.
Before everything And. to. appear in a duodenum, then in a stomach, lean and a rectum. In a mucous membrane of a stomach the greatest number And. to. it is located in peloric department (240 cells on 100 fields of vision), in fundal and cardial their departments it is less (respectively 125 and 115 cells). The duodenum contains 150 A.k. on 100 crypts, in lean — 60, in a straight line — 190 [Funk (H. U. Funk, 1966) et al.]. Majority And. to. a stomach lies in the area of a bottom of glands, in intestines they are located in crypts (fig.), on fibers only single cells in which granules of considerably smaller size, than in cells of crypts meet.
And. to. have triangular shape, their wide basis lies on a basal membrane (see), the narrow apical department leaves in a gleam of crypts or glands. Kernels of an oval form with 1 — 2 kernels are located in an average third of cells. Cytoplasm contains a small amount of RNA, in it high activity of nonspecific esterase (see), acid phosphatase (see), dehydrogenases comes to light (see). Activity of a tiaminpirofosfataza and nukleoziddiaforaz at the person is much weaker, than at laboratory animals. In a basal part of cells granules which, in addition to argentaffin, give chromaffin, acid and alkaline diazoniyevy reactions are located, are painted in brownish-black color by molybdenic hematoxylin, in black gallaminovy blue or gallocyanine, in orange-red ninhydrin, give yellow fluorescence after formol-fixation and blue in unstable material.
The Elektronnomikroskopichesky research
reveals the Elektronnomikroskopichesky research on an apical surface And. to. short microvillis. In an upper part of cells elements of a smooth endoplasmic reticulum, a ribosome, a mitochondrion, Golgi's complex are located. Mitochondrions And. to. more compact and a matrix their more dense, than at mitochondrions of enterocytes. At the same time the hyaloplasma looks less dense, than in other epithelial cells. The electron density of cytoplasmatic granules varies over a wide range: a part of granules looks on diffraction patterns black, a part — almost transparent. Each granule is surrounded with a membrane. The form of granules is various (round, oval, ellipsoidal). The sizes of pale granules it is more, than dense. It is assumed that big pale granules — result of hydration or other changes of small dense granules. It is impossible to exclude also that various density reflects stages of secretory process. An arrangement of granules at a basal membrane, histochemical and ultrastructural properties A. to. give the grounds to carry them to «paracrine glands» or «diffusion endocrine organs».
Methods of coloring
Fixing in 10% neutral formalin. Pierce (E. Pearse, 1962) recommends 4 main techniques: argentaffin, chromaffin, diazoniyevy reactions and Gibbs's reaction. Argentaffin reaction is carried out by Masson's techniques — Fontana, Masson — Gamperlya, Gomori, Lilly; diazoniyevy — by means of strong garnet GBC, fast red B, diazolya the pink Lake. Chromaffin reaction is based on processing of material by salts of chrome; Gibbs's reaction — on formation of Indo-phenolic dye at interaction 2,6 dichlorquinonechloroamines with phenol in alkaline condition. The lyuminestsentnomikroskopichesky method of Falk has very high sensitivity. Material at the same time is fixed in vapors of formaldehyde and is exposed to lyophilizing. At excitement the intensive luminescence — green for catecholamines and yellow for serotonin arises ultraviolet rays. Falk's method is modified by V. P. Bykova and N. V. Medunitsin (1970): object is fixed in vapors of formaldehyde at t ° 56 — 60 °, cuts are prepared on the freezing microtome and studied in a luminescent microscope with the UFS-6 filter.
From And. to. there can be generally carcinoid tumors (see. Carcinoid ). Hyperplasia And. to. it is noted at atrophic gastritis, in an early phase of nonspecific ulcer colitis, at a cystous pneumatosis intestinalis, damages of the kidneys which are not followed by uraemia after administration of sarcolysine. Quantity And. to. it is reduced at patients with pernicious anemia, late stages of nonspecific ulcer colitis, at malignant tumors, except tumors went. - kish. a path, after general irradiation. According to Funk et al., there is no dependence between the content of serotonin in fabric and blood and number A. to.
Bibliography: Pisareva T. N. Morphology of enterokhromaffinny cells and a role of serotonin in an organism, Arkh. patol., t. 27, century 7, page 3, 1965, bibliogr.; Ferreira M. N. Argentaffin and other «Endocrine» cells of the small intestine in adult mouse, Amer. J. Anat., v. 131, p. 315, 1971, bibliogr.; Feyrter F. Über die peripheren endokrinen (Parakrinen) Drüsen des Menschen, Wien-Dusseldorf, 1953, Bibliogr.; Funk H. U. u. a. Die Zahl argent-affiner Zellen des menschlichen Verdauungstraktes unter normalen und pathologischen Bedingungen, Virchows Arch. path. Anat., Bd 340, S. 289, 1966, Bibliogr.; Häkanson R. New aspects of the formation and function of histamine, 5-hyd-roxytriptamine and dopamine in gastric mucosa, Lund, 1970, bibliogr.; Hard-m e i e r T. Normal und pathologische Anatomie des argentaffinen Systems des menschlichen Magendarmtraktes, Schweiz, med. Wschr., S. 743, 1963; Trier J. S. Enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine, Gastroenterology, v. 54, p. 667, 1968.
L. I. Aruin.