AREA (Latin area the area, space) — the field of distribution of any look, sort, family and other systematic categories of animals or plants.
The category of systematic division is higher, the A. Tak is wider, And. families are wider than an area of the childbirth entering it, And. sorts are wider than areas of the types entering it etc.
Features And. are defined by history of development and ecology (see) types. And. can cover the most part of the globe (cosmopolitan And.) or insignificant territory (endemic And.). Small sizes A. often confirm relic character of the look inhabiting it. The number of a look in various parts A. it is not identical. In limits And. the look is widespread in the habitat inherent to it. Quite often individuals of a look use different environments for passing of certain phases of development and implementation of various physiological functions. So, larvae of mosquitoes, midges and other insects live in an aqueous medium, and imaginal stages are connected with land biotopes (see); the flying and wandering birds nest in one zones, and winter in others. K A. a look carry not all territory, on a cut individuals of this look, and only that can be found, on a cut they complete a life cycle. Around And. therefore there is more or less wide field of distribution of a look, in to-ruyu it is actively or passively brought. And. a virus of yellow fever includes tropical Africa and America, but does not cover those countries to which the virus though is brought by mosquitoes, but where its reproduction is impossible.
Areas of parasites and causative organisms are defined by areas of their owners and carriers and usually happen already And. the last. So, And. causative agent of fever of a pappatacha already And. mosquitoes — disease carriers.
On cards of border And. are designated or the line connecting the extreme locations of a look or the points corresponding to the certain locations of a look.
Bibliography: Geptner V. G. The general zoogeography, M. — L of 1936; Panfilov D. V. About a structure and dynamics of an area of a species of animals, in book: Vopr. geography, under the editorship of A. G. Voronov, etc., Saturday. 48, page 90, M., 1960; Tolmachev A. I. Bases of the doctrine about areas (Introduction to chorology of plants), L., 1962, bibliogr.
A. G. Voronov.