ARCTIC — the northern polar region of the globe including suburbs of continents of Europe, Asia, Sowing. America and almost all pool Sowing. Ledovity ocean. In literature northern areas call also Far North, the Polar region, the polar countries, high latitudes.
Border And. carry usually out on an isotherm 10 ° July or August (for east part Sowing. America) which is approximately matching northern border of a lignosa.
Area And. apprx. 25 000 000 km 2 , from which apprx. 15 000 000 km 2 — water spaces. On the land And. the part of the territory of the USSR, Canada, possession of the USA (Alaska), Denmark (Greenland) and Norway is necessary (Spitsbergen). Naibolshaya Square And. occupies the Soviet sector (apprx. 5 000 000 km 2 ), the southern border to-rogo passes with 3. on V. approximately across Arctic Circle to the territory Yakut the ASSR and further on 64 parallels, a strip in the width direction more than 8000 km and in meridional — 2000 km.
First data on development And. (Vikings) treat 10 century. Development of the European part A. began Russians in 12 century.
Big contribution to studying And. the Russian researchers B. Vilkitsky, D. Ya. Laptev, X brought. P. Laptev, S. G. Malygin, F. I. Litke, P. K. Pakhtusov, V. A. Rusanov, G. Ya. Sedov, S. I. Chelyuskin, etc. However systematic researches A. in the conditions of imperial Russia were not carried out. Considerable merits in studying And. belong also to foreign researchers — to R. Amundsen, F. Nansen, R. Peary, D. Ross, etc.
Complex studying and development of the Soviet sector And. began after Great October socialist revolution. Powerful technical means (ice breakers, aircraft, radio, etc.) were for this purpose used · Groups of specialists of various profile, including and physicians were sent to the Arctic districts. The wide scope of work on transformation in political, economic and cultural areas of life of the people of A. Uzhe in the first years of the Soviet power is carried out the most close attention was paid to improvement of health care of indigenous people.
In 1921 at the initiative of V. I. Lenin at the National Commissariat of nationalities (Narkomnats) the Polar section was created, activity to-rogo was directed to practical implementation of measures for economic and spiritual development of small northern nationalities, carrying out in life of the principles of Lenin national policy. In 1923 Mr. Narkomnats made the decision on urgent measures for health protection and improvement of medical service of indigenous people of A. V of 1924 at Presidium In the CEC the Committee of assistance to nationalities of the northern countries (Committee of the North) was formed, the Crimea directed P. G. Smidovich. Same year VTsIK and Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR adopted the resolution on supply of the population of Far North with food and necessities. Besides, in 1922 — 1923. The Russian Society of the Red Cross to the Arctic sent complex groups of medics for rendering the medical help, carrying out sanitary scheduled maintenance, the organization of fight against epidemics.
In development And. big merits belong to the Soviet researchers: To O. Yu. Schmidt, G. A. Ushakov, I. D. Papanin, M. M. Somov, M. F. Treshnikov, V. Yu. To the visa, A. I. Mineev, B. I. Shvorin, etc.
Climatic characteristic. Main feature of climate And. — low temperatures during the whole year (tsvetn. map, Art. 393). Average temperature of January from — 3 ° on Yu. the priatlantichesky sector to — 40 ° in the central part, the average temperature of July is from 10 ° on the southern borders to 0 ° in the central part (tsvetn, the map, Art. 393).
The period of polar night on 73 °C. highway makes 71 days, on 69 °C. highway — 37 days and near the Polar circle — 10 days a year. Extremely low midday heights of the sun in the afternoon (in days of the autumn and vernal equinox) define longer period of the actual absence in a range of the sunlight reaching the land surface, ultraviolet rays or so-called biological polar night throughout all cold period. Besides, blizzards, strong winds (to 40 m/s), sharp fluctuations of atmospheric pressure and electromagnetic storms are characteristic of the Arctic climate frequent a snowstorm.
Low temperatures cause a wide spread occurance of permafrost up to several hundred meters in depth and availability of fossil ice (the regions of Alaska, Eastern Siberia, etc.). Owing to low temperatures and weak evaporation air moisture content is small. The annual amount of precipitation is insignificant: 75 — 100 mm in the central part A. and 300 — 400 mm on the southern border. During the most part of year of draft hl drop out. obr. in the form of snow.
Due to the intensive cooling of air over a surface so-called temperature inversion — temperature increase with height, especially takes place in the winter.
Natural waters And. on genesis are various. Surface waters are a little mineralized (50 — 250 mg/l) and have small rigidity (2 — 5 °). In some reservoirs the content of iodine in water is in limits of 0,6 — 1,0 mg/l, and it is less than 0,1 mg/l of fluorine. In this regard topical issue is preventive fluoration of drinking water and providing the population with iodized salt.
In limits And. allocate two main natural zones: an arctic desert and the tundra which landscape is uniform flora and fauna are poor.
Feature of the Arctic districts is dispersion of the population; population density in the Soviet sector makes 0,1 — 0,2 people, in foreign — 0,03 people on 1 km 2 .
Since the most ancient times the most northern regions of Russia were inhabited by so-called small northern nationalities which led mainly a nomadic and semi-nomadic life. Before Great October socialist revolution indigenous people And. was at extremely low step of development in the conditions of cruel national oppression, constant need and oppression by imperial administration. Average life expectancy did not exceed 27 years.
For years of the Soviet power in the Soviet sector And. great transformations were made. Life of indigenous people changed, development of economy accelerated, the culture increased, medical service considerably improved. The large centers for use of natural resources, the cities, working settlements and rural settlements are created. Such cities as Murmansk, Monchegorsk, Vorkuta, Norilsk, Inta, Talnakh, Magadan and others, and also settlements of city type, on the improvement approach samples of modern town planning and in foreign And. have not equal.
In modern economy of the Soviet sector And. the extracting industries prevail — mountain, forest, fish, however also the industries of economy, traditional for indigenous people — reindeer breeding, hunting, hunting are developed.
Opening and development of the richest reserves of black coal, oil, metal ores, natural gas led to significant increase in inflow of the population in And. from other regions of the country. For the last 30 years population increased more than by 30 times. More than 60% of the population live in the southern areas And., where climatic conditions are less severe.
As a result of carrying out Lenin national policy, sharp improvement of life, food, health care population of small northern nationalities increased (and has a constant tendency to increase). Life expectancy increased.
Physical development of children improves, incidence, the general and child mortality decreases. Rather high natural increase of the population is caused by high rates of birth rate and low rates of mortality.
Incidence. Exclusively severe conditions of life of the people And. before Great October socialist revolution, the low culture, insanitary conditions caused prevalence of tuberculosis, syphilis, a scurvy, itch, trachoma and other diseases, alcoholism was everywhere widespread. From epidemics belly and a sapropyra, natural smallpox, flu and other infectious diseases thousands of people perished. All this led to extinction of many nationalities.
Social transformations, increase in welfare and the organization of medical service of the population for years of the Soviet power considerably changed structure of incidence of the population of A. Prakticheski such diseases as syphilis, itch, trachoma, etc. are liquidated. Mortality of indigenous people of Ampere-second of 1961 for 1965 decreased more than by 50%. The incidence connected with climatic features is considerably reduced And. (rickets, local craw and so forth). In a crust, time structure of incidence in the Soviet sector And. in general corresponds to the general structure of incidence in the USSR and other advanced countries (see. Incidence , Health care ).
Incidence of not indigenous people of hl. obr. it is caused by klimatogeografichesky features — bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, frostbites which make apprx. 40% of all incidence. Therefore the leading value gets creation of the corresponding living conditions (an artificial microclimate of the dwelling, school, a workplace etc.) without which the person could not adapt in extreme climatic conditions. In modern conditions among the factors influencing structure of incidence in And., into the forefront contrast between temperature of the room and external environment acts. In the conditions of severe winter temperature drops upon such transitions reach 70 — 80 °, and they can take place several times in days.
In connection with significant increase in population and change of living conditions and work the question about inherent is subject to careful further studying And. nosological profile. In this regard prevention of incidence in areas And. shall provide first of all the maximum simplification of process of acclimatization of new settlers in most - its beginning and the prevention of transition of this process to pathological forms.
Before Great October socialist revolution of system of medical service of the population And. did not exist. After establishment of the Soviet power in the regions of the Arctic a number of the actions directed to elimination of incidence, improvement of a sanitary condition of the inhabited places was held. Especially it is much made for improvement of life and health of small northern nationalities in recent years. In national districts in 1973 7 district, 47 regional, 116 district police officers of hospitals, 16 specialized clinics functioned. The network to lay down. - professional, institutions and koyeny fund extends (tab. 1) from year to year. In a number of the large centers are constructed and multi-field hospitals on 120 — 240 places in which specialized medical aid is carried out are under construction. Constantly the number of medical shots and security with them of the population increases And. (tab. 2,3). In 1913 in the territory And. there were 10 doctors, and in 1973 in national districts And. — 2058.
Great value for increase in level of health care And. preparation of medical shots from representatives of indigenous people which is carried out in a number of medical higher education institutions of the USSR — in Krasnoyarsk, Omsk, Khabarovsk, Tomsk, Leningrad pediatric and Leningrad sanitary and hygienic, Arkhangelsk, etc. has. The number of the studying representatives of small northern nationalities grows from year to year. In 1959 at all medical institutes of RSFSR 71 people (12 nationalities) studied, and in 1971 only at the Tomsk, Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk medical institutes 288 students of 23 nationalities A studied at full state providing.
At most of small northern nationalities 1 doctor of this nationality is the share of the 200th persons.
The paramedical staff also prepares from indigenous people A. Tak, e.g., the Salekhard medical school for years of its existence (since 1948) over 700 representatives of nationalities A ended.
Preparation of medical shots from nationalities A. — bright expression of Lenin national policy.
The system of protection of motherhood and the childhood is created. In pre-revolutionary Russia in And. there was no child care facility. By 1972 the number of places in a constant children's day nursery and kindergartens in Taymyr national Autonomous Area reached 500, in Nenets — 900, Khanty-Mansiysk — 1300. The wide network of maternity homes, women's a game
of sultation, children's policlinics, boarding schools is developed. Norms of food in child care facilities of the Arctic are increased in comparison with other regions of the USSR. Considerable funds for free food of children and the maintenance of milk kitchens are annually allocated. For children with poor health special sanatorium schools at which children study and treated are created, being on full state providing.
In a health system And. continuously the number of infirmaries increases. Considering considerable dispersion of settlements in And., these medical institutions play an essential role in service of the population in places of kocheviya. At district and regional hospitals in 1972 25 permanent mobile medical groups which conduct planned preventive examinations of indigenous people functioned. For rendering the emergency medical aid to inhabitants of the remote settlements and evacuation of patients 27 stations a dignity are created. aircraft. In some national districts mobile floating out-patient clinics on sea and river crafts are created.
From year to year equipment of medical institutions A improves. lechebnodiagnostichesky equipment. From 1956 for 1965 the quantity of X-ray departments increased twice, physiotherapeutic — three times, clinical diagnostic laboratories — by two and a half times. Big role in improvement of living conditions radical and the newcomer to areas Soviet And. the population played the complex expeditions conducted by a number of in-t of AMN and M3 of the USSR from the very beginning of the post-war period. From 1946 to 1960 with the assistance of Department of polar medicine of Glavsevmorputi and Arctic in-that the state of health, structure of incidence, physical was studied. development of the children's population, reason of mortality, fiziol., biol, and immunobiol. features and shifts in an organism in the course of acclimatization.
Special attention was paid to justification a gigabyte. standards taking into account local conditions and the state of health of the population, to a design of settlements, their improvement, water supply, a dignity. to cleaning, microclimate of residential and public buildings, child care facilities and their orientation, measures for artificial enrichment of lighting by an ultra-violet component, organizations of medical service of the adult and children's population, to the modes of work and life and many other problems of medical and preventive character. These researches served as justification of a number of the largest economic actions which provided development of natural wealth And. without any damage to health of the population.
One of important a gigabyte. requirements at a design of the cities and settlements protection of the population against strong winter winds and overcooling is. Taking into account the mode of solar radiation, temperature and convection of air of a window in houses shall come to the North in order that got to them sunshine more, and at construction the following optimum standards of a microclimate shall be provided: air temperature during the cold period of year not lower than 21 °, mobility of air — 0,1 m/s.
The clothes of polar explorers shall be designed taking into account the need of maintenance of normal processes of heat exchange, character and a duty which is carried out in the open air.
Development of a balanced diet in A. Kaloriynost of food is extremely important shall cover the raised metabolic cost. The diet also shall promote increase in stability of an organism against cold. Special value has maintenance of vitamin balance on high levels, considering a possibility of development of a hypovitaminosis. Deficit of mineral salts in drinking water should be eliminated by means of the foodstuff containing a large amount of mineral salts.
Due to the intensive development And. and inflow in And. the population extend complex researches on studying of influence of cold on a human body and problems of adaptation in extreme conditions of high latitudes. See also Acclimatization .
Bibliography: Danishevsky G. M. Pathology of the person and prevention of diseases in the north, M., 1968, bibliogr.; Kandror I. S. Sketches on physiology and hygiene of the person on Far North, M., 1968, bibliogr.; Work and health of the person on Far North, Problems of the North, century 14, M., 1970.
I. V. Bogorad.