ARCHIATER (archiater; grech, prist. archi-is senior, main + iatros the doctor) — the rank of the chief physician introduced in the Roman Empire along with development of all administrative functions of the state for the first time. It was appropriated to palace doctors in the beginning. Then appeared And. the cities and provinces, they were obliged to give advice to poor patients and to train in medicine. And. used big privileges, were exempted from taxes and duties, had the right for the highest state positions and honorary titles. The name «archiater» remained in the Middle Ages for designation of a position of the physician-in-ordinary of the father.
In Russia a rank And. it is entered at Peter I in 1716 by reorganization Pharmaceutical order (see) for a position of the chief director of «Office of the major drugstore», i.e. the head of all medical service of the state.
Bibliography: History of medicine, under the editorship of B. D. Petrov, page 79, M., 1954; Sagittariuses And. Doctors at ancient Romans, page 73, M., 1888; Chistovich Ya. History of the first medical schools in Russia, page LX, etc., SPb., 1883.
E. I. Lotova.