ARBOVIRAL DISEASES — group of infectious diseases of the people and animals called by an arbovirus, who are transferred to susceptible vertebrata by blood-sicking arthropods.
History of studying And. begins since 1900 — 1901 when the virus nature and transmissible transfer of yellow fever was established. The term «arthropodborne» (transferred by arthropods) is entered in 1942. In 1963 for this group of viruses the reduced term «arbovirus» is accepted. Till 1930 it was described five And., in 1930 — 1939 — 10, in 1940 — 1949 — 19, in 1950 — 1959 — 107, in 1960 — 1969 — already 141.
It is established that from known in a crust, more than 300 arbovirus apprx. 80 can cause time And. person. In total And. are transferred in the transmissible way though in some cases also infection with an alimentary and airborne way is possible. Frequent cases of laboratory infection with the Venezuelan encephalomyelitis of horses, by the Omsk hemorrhagic fever, the Crimean hemorrhagic fever, fever of Rift-Valli and nek-ry others are explained the last circumstance. Carriers of the majority And. — mosquitoes and mites. Ixodic and argasovy mites owing to the biological features can be as well a tank And. in the nature. In some cases as carriers serve mosquitoes and wood lice. Absolute majority And. treats prirodnoochagovy diseases (see. Natural ochagovost ). A clinical picture at all And. has no pathognomonic syndromes that causes need of carrying out for all cases of laboratory inspection. The diagnosis is made on the basis of allocation of a virus from sick or representative (≥2 log) increase of antiserum capacities in pair serums. Diseases have the expressed seasonality: autumn and summer — at mosquito And., spring and summer — at tick-borne And. About fifteen And. are ecologically connected with birds that defines a possibility of a transcontinental drift of activators. Emergence of epidemic flashes And. it is often connected with penetration of the large not immune contingents on the uninhabited territory or is result of unreasonable economic activity (uncontrollable irrigational works, pastures of page - x. animals and so forth). In ecology of activators the role hron, and latent forms of an infection is considerable. Natural cycles of circulation of an arbovirus in different climatic conditions are various. The technique of forecasting of the centers is developed And. in the territory of the USSR, and also susceptibility to infection and incidence.
Such And., as yellow fever (see), fevers of a dengue (see), Chikungunya, O'Nyong-nyong, Oropush, flebotomny fever (see), are capable to mass distribution to short terms. Others And., usually arising and widely extending among page - x. animals, flashes among people numbering from several tens to several thousand cases cause: mosquito encephalitis, encephalitis of the valley of Murray and St. Louis, east, western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis horse (see), the Western Neil's fevers, Sindbis, the Crimean, Omsk, Argentina hemorrhagic fevers, a kyasanursky forest disease, the Colorado tick-borne fever (see Colorado fever), epidemic polyarthritis, Rift-Valli, Tatagin (exanthematous fever), Bvamba. For the others And. sporadic incidence is characteristic. Quantity mosquito And. decreases in process of advance from the equator in the polar directions. Yellow fever, fevers of a dengue, Chikungunya, O'Nyong-nyong, Oropush, the Venezuelan encephalomyelitis, fevers of Rift-Valli, Tatagin, Bvamba are especially characteristic of the equatorial and subequatorial climatic zones. For tropical and subtropical, and also boundary parts of a moderate zone the outbreaks of mosquito encephalitis, encephalitis of the valley of Murray, encephalitis St. Louis, east and western encephalomyelitis, the Western Neil's fever, Sindbis, Ross River, flebotomny fever, the Crimean and Argentina hemorrhagic fevers are inherent. For the moderate climatic zone are usual tick-borne And.: tick-borne encephalitis, Scottish encephalomyelitis of sheep, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Colorado tick-borne fever, Povassan. In the USSR a tick-borne encephalitis, the Omsk hemorrhagic fever, mosquito encephalitis, fever Sindbis, the Western Neil's fever, flebotomny fever, the Crimean hemorrhagic fever are known. The lethality at some encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers reaches 60 — 75%. The ratio between clinical and inapparantny (asymptomatic) forms, according to different authors, reaches 1: 10 — 1: 400.
Classification is most accepted And., based on antigenic distinctions of activators (see. Arbovirus ).
- Group A — east, western and Venezuelan encephalomyelitis of horses, fevers Mukambu, Sindbis, Mayaro, Chikungunya, O'Nyong-nyong, Ross River.
- Group B — yellow fever, fevers of a dengue, Negisi, encephalitis tick-borne, mosquito, St. Louis, valleys of Murray, Povassan; the Scottish encephalomyelitis, the Omsk hemorrhagic fever, a kyasanursky forest disease, the Western Neil's fevers, Zeke, Ilheus, Banzi, Bussukvara, Uesselsbron, Uganda With, Spondveni, Usuta, Kundzhin, Rio Bravo, Langat.
- group C — Marituba, Oribok, Apeu, Murutuka, Karapara, Ithaca, Restan, Madrid, Ossa; Bunyamver's group — Bunyamvera, Vyeomiya, Guaroa, Ilesha, Germiston;
- the California group — the Californian encephalitis, Trivittatus;
- group of Bvamba — Bvamba;
- group of Guam — Guam and Katu;
- Simbu's group — Oropush and Shuni.
- Group of flebotomny fever — flebotomny fever, Chagres, to Kandir, Punta-Thoreau.
- Group of the Crimean hemorrhagic fever — the Crimean hemorrhagic fever.
- Group of vesicular stomatitis — vesicular stomatitis, Peary, Chandipur.
- Group Gandzham — Gandzham, Dugbe.
- Group Kvaranfil — Kvaranfil.
- Nongrouped And. — fevers of Rift-Valli, Lebombo, Tatagin, Togoto, Colorado tick-borne fever.
The group of a lymphocytic choriomeningitis treats arenovirusa.
In veterinary science, besides, the African disease of horses, the African fever of pigs, a disease of blue language of sheep, ephemeral fever of the cattle, a disease of sheep of Nairobi are of great importance. On clinical manifestations And. are divided into groups of encephalitis — encephalomyelitis, hemorrhagic fevers, fevers with rash and all-feverish diseases.
Treatment And. only symptomatic.
Main directions of prevention And.: immunization, fight against carriers, means of personal prevention (wearing overalls, zasetchivaniye of windows, use of repellents, etc.) Passive immunoprevention (administration of immune serums, gamma-globulins) is shown in cases of laboratory infection and for the prevention of infection in the natural centers of not immune persons. Active immunization is carried out by the inactivated and live vaccines. There are effective live vaccines against yellow fever and a tick-borne encephalitis. From number A. yellow fever belongs to so-called conventional diseases.
Bibliography: Zhdanov V. M. and Gaydamovich of S. Ya. Virusologiya, page 292, M., 1966; Kassirsky I. A. and Plotnikov H.H. Diseases of tropical countries. M, 1964; Levkovich E.N.i other. Viruses of a complex of a tick-borne encephalitis, L., 1967, bibliogr.; Lviv D. K. Znacheniye of persistent and latent infections in ecology of an arbovirus, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 10, page 63, 1970, bibliogr.; Lviv D. Κ., Moshkin A. V. and Puzachenko Yu. G. Information analysis of areas of some arbovirus, Vestn. Mosk. un-that, it is gray. geography, No. 3, page 76, 1967; Lviv D. K., etc. About calculation of intensity of infection and incidence at arboviral infections (on model of a tick-borne encephalitis in Altai Krai), Medical parazitol., t. 38, No. 4, page 410, 1969; Lviv D. K., etc. The centers of an arbovirus in the north of the Far East, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 2, page 52, 1971; Pavlovsky E. N. Likhoradka of a papatacha and its carrier, L., 1947; Petrishcheva P. A., Levkovich E.N.i Boldyrev S. T. Japanese encephalitis, M., 1963; Semenov B.F.i Lviv D. K. Distribution and a role in infectious pathology of the person of the arbovirus which is given by mites (excepting members of group B), Medical parazitol., t. 40, No. 3, page 259, 1971, bibliogr.; Smorodintsev A. A., Kaz · binets L. I. and Chudakov V. G. Viral hemorrhagic fevers, L., 1963, bibliogr.; Viral and rickettsial infection of man, ed. by F. L. Horsfall a. I. Tamm, Philadelphia, 1965.
D. K. Lvov.