From Big Medical Encyclopedia

APPETITE (Latin. appetitus aspiration, desire) — the emotional feeling connected with aspiration of the person to a certain food. And. subjectively differs from feeling hunger (see). The feeling of hunger reflects the need of an organism for nutrients and it is usually subjectively unpleasant. And. is under construction on the basis of food requirement, it is connected with ideas of future meal and reflects pleasant emotional feelings which usually accompany reception of this or that food. And. amplifies action of special starting and obstanovochny irritants (a look, a smell, taste of food, a situation etc.).

And. it is developed in the course of individual human life and it is always selective depending on initial requirement, national and individual habits. Especially clearly selective character And. it is shown at children, at pregnant women and at patients with malignant new growths when in an organism owing to features of a metabolism the need for certain nutrients forms. At some infectious diseases selective And. can pass in perverted (see below). Emergence And. it is caused by specific influence of «hungry blood» on the food center. According to modern representations emergence And. is explained by selective excitement of limbic structures (a partition, amigdaloidny area, a hippocampus, a zone crinkle, orbital bark, etc.), bark big a hemisphere to which the ascending activating influences of the initiative food centers of hypothalamic area extend. Fiziol, observations show that damages of hypothalamic and limbic structures lead to disturbances of meal: to the termination — an aphagia or, on the contrary, to consumption in excessive quantities — a hyperphagia.

From the point of view of P. K. Anokhin's concept about functional systems of an organism (see. Functional systems ), And. it is connected with functioning of the device of an acceptor of results of action (see). In this device at numerous satisfactions of food requirement on the basis of mechanisms of memory ideas of properties of food irritation and of that pleasant emotional experience, a cut usually are imprinted accompanies reception of feedstuffs. Existence of such device which forms in a condition of hunger even long before the real use of food is the powerful directing factor stimulating a hungry animal and the person to search and meal.

And., as a rule, amplifies the first minutes of meal, especially if food corresponds to expected. It promotes activation of secretory activity of a digestive tract, in particular to allocation of a gastric juice (so-called ignition, or appetizing, juice according to I. P. Pavlov), motor activity of digestive tract — «a hungry peristaltics» amplifies.

Absence or disturbance And. causes disorder of digestive activity. Any distracting factors (a talk, reading, work during food) can lead to A. Eto's disturbance especially concerns And. children: systematic lack of positive emotion during food can be the reason that And. it will not be created at all.

From the biological point of view the mechanism of formation And. it is carried out on the basis of numerous satisfactions of requirements with receiving at the same time positive emotional feelings.

Disorder of appetite can arise at many morbid conditions: neuro and mental diseases (tumors of a brain, encephalitis, hysteria, psychoses, etc.), diseases of closed glands (diabetes mellitus, hyper dysinsulinism, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, etc.) » diseases of systems of blood (anemias, leukoses, etc.), diseases of a liver (hepatitises, cirrhoses) and a stomach (a peptic ulcer, gastritises, etc.), malignant new growths, hypo - and avitaminosis, intoxications (alcoholism, uraemia, overdose of a digitalis, etc.), infections, pregnancy.

Distinguish three types of frustration And.: decrease And. up to total loss (see. Anorexia ); increase And., expressed sometimes in sharp degree (see. Bulimia ); perversion And. — so-called pica (Latin pica of forty), expressed in the aspiration to eat inedible substances (chalk, lime, ashes, the earth, coal, kerosene, metal objects etc.). Perversions And. are caused first of all by changes of a functional condition of the food center.

Bibliography: Anokhin P. K. Reflex of the purpose as subject of the physiological analysis, Zhurn. vyssh. nervn. deyateln., t. 12, No. 1, page 7, 1962; Anokhin P. K. and With at d joint stock company about in K. V. Neurophysiological theory of hunger, appetite and saturation, Usp. fiziol. sciences, t. 2, No. 1, page 3, 1971, bibliogr.; Pavlov I. P. About the food center, Pauly. SOBR. soch., t. 3, book 1, page 147, M. — L., 1951; R and z e N to about in I. P. Chosen works, M., 1959; K. V Pike perches. Biological motivations, M., 1971; Blacken govskiyv. N. Znacheniye of the interoceptive alarm system in a feeding behavior of animals, M. — L., 1962, bibliogr.; BrobeckJ. Century of Neural basis of hunger, appetite, and satiety, Gastroenterology, V. 32, p. 169, 1957, bibliogr.; Grossman M. I. Integration of current views on the regulation of hunger and appetite, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 63, art. 1, p. 76, 1955.

K. V. Sudakov, 3. K. Trushinsky.