AOMIN (till 1959 — Macau) — possession of Portugal. And. it is located on a South vost. coast of China. Includes the peninsula Aomin, the island Taypa and Koloane. And. it was rented by Portugal at China in 1557, and in 1849 Portuguese pr-in announced And. independent of China. Officially has the status of «the overseas province» since June, 1951. Is controlled the governor; local authority — the Legislative Council. The area — 16 km 2 . The population — 260 thousand people (1973).
The administrative center — Aomin (241 thousand people; 1970). Ofits. language — Portuguese.
Relief of the peninsula rocky. Climate — monsoonal. Average air temperature from November to March 14 °, in July-August 29 °. Such climatic conditions contribute to respiratory diseases.
Major activities of the population: fishery and processing of fish, domestic industries. Textiles, porcelain, camphor, fish, tea, etc. are exported.
Population And. consists of Chinese (98%), Portuguese and inhabitants of other nationalities. The vigorous business activity causes considerable population shift.
The natural movement of the population in And. (on 1000 people of the population) in 1968 was the following: birth rate — 12,2, mortality — 5,9, a natural increase — 6,3, child mortality (on 1000 live-born) — 31,6.
In 1968 tuberculosis, malignant new growths, heart troubles and vessels, vascular defeats of c were the main reasons for death. N of page, etc. From infectious diseases in 1972 cases Korn, typhus and paratyphoid diseases, diphtherias, etc. were noted.
Health service And., edges includes also welfare service, the medical inspector heads. In the administrative relation the health service is subdivided into 2 departments: organizations of health care and organization of medical aid.
Hospital service in 1969 was carried out in 7 to lay down. institutions (in 4 general hospitals, 2 medical centers, 1 oncological hospital). The bed fund in general hospitals in 1969 made 1126 beds, of them in the state hospitals — 426, in private — 700. Besides, there were 600 beds in the center for treatment of toxicomanias (drug addiction).
The ambulatory care in 1968 was given in 5 polyclinic departments of hospitals, in the center of health care and 5 points of medical aid, and also private medical practitioners.
Service of mothers and children (1968) was carried out by women's and children's consultations, the pediatric center. The majority of childbirth were accepted in hospital conditions.
In 1969 in And. 193 doctors from whom 29 were in public service worked. There were 32 dentists, druggists - 2, assistants to druggists — 20, the diplomaed midwifes - 23, the diplomaed nurses - 179, assistants to nurses — 31 and other auxiliary dignity. personnel.
Under the authority of health service And. there is a school on training of nurses and assistants to nurses. Nurses study 3 years with the subsequent one-year practical preparation, assistants to nurses — 1 year with the subsequent 6-month practical preparation.
The most important problems of public health care And. fight against tuberculosis, improvement a dignity are. - a gigabyte. conditions of the environment and living conditions.
From the total amount of the public expenditures on consumption in 1968 on health service 8% were assigned.
Bibliography: The first review of a condition of health care in the world (1954 — 1956), page 419, Geneva, 1963; The Fourth review of a condition of health care in the world (1965 — 1968), page 514, Geneva, 1973; World Health Statistics Report, v. 26, No. 1 — 12, 1973.
K. K. Timofeev.