From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ANTROPONOZA (grech, anthröpos of people + nosos a disease) — infectious diseases which causative agents are capable to parasitize only in a human body. K A. belong: typhoid, dysentery, cholera, sapropyra, malaria, droplet infections (diphtheria, measles, scarlet fever), etc.

Preservation of activators A. as species it is caused by a continuity of process of their transition from the infected person to the susceptible person. It is provided with evolutionarily created mechanism of transfer which is a basis of epidemic process. Main feature of distribution And. the fact that the infected person can only be a source of an infection is. Existence of activators A. as species it is provided with constant natural selection (selection) of the strains circulating among the population and time of stay of the activator in an organism of the infected person (sufficient for sale of the mechanism of transfer) up to completion of infectious process (recovery, death). And. proceed less sharply more often, than zoonoza, up to clinically asymptomatic forms, and in most cases are followed by lower lethality.

There are two ways of evolution of activators A. One activators, napr, malaria, shigelloses, are brought by the person from far ancestors and, therefore, evolved together with it. Others adapted to a human body at that stage of its development when its contact with representatives of fauna, and from here and intensive exchange of microflora, in particular intestinal, gained constant character, i.e. during domestication of wildings. Existence of causative agents of infectious diseases of synanthropic animals (S. abortus equi, S. pullorum, etc.), synanthropic animals and the person testifies to it (S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, etc.) and, at last, only the person (S. typhiabdominalis), belonging to one sort Salmonella. Activators A. more ancient activators of zoonoz are, apparently, later product of evolution of pathogenic microorganisms, than.

A. A. Sumarokov.