ANTISEPTIC AGENTS (grech, anti-against + septikos causing suppuration putrefactive) — the connections having antimicrobic properties.
Ampere-second. belong to various classes of chemical compounds and can be divided into the following groups: 1) haloids — drugs of chlorine (see), iodine (see); 2) oxidizers — hydrogen peroxide (see), Hydroperitum, potassium permanganate (see. Potassium permanganate ), hypochloric potassium (potassium chloride); 3) acids — the benzoic, boric, Bromsalicylanilidum, almond, salicylic, sulfuric, trichloroacetic, acetic, undecylenic, chromic; 4) alkalis — ammonia, bikarmint, borax, calcium oxide, soda; 5) compounds of heavy metals — aluminum (see), bismuth (see), copper (see), mercury (see), lead (see), silver (see), zinc (see); 6) alcohols — ethyl, isopropyl, trikhlorizobutilovy (Chloretonum), some glycols; 7) aldehydes — formaldehyde (see Formalin), urotropin (see. Geksametilentetramin ); 8) phenols (see); 9) products of dry distillation of organic materials — various pitches and tars, Ichthyolum; 10) dyes — tetraethyl-diamino-triphenyl-carbohydride sulfate, methylrosanilinum chloride, methylene blue, Aethacridinum, flavakridin; 11) derivatives of nitrofuran — Furacilin, furadonin, furasolidone, etc.; 12) derivatives 8 oxyquinolines — Chinosolum, Chiniofonum, etc.; 13) poverkhnostnoaktivny substances, or detergents (see); 14) phytoncides (see. Phytoncidal drugs ). To Ampere-second. some antibiotics — gramicidin, kolimitsin, Neomycinum, Microcidum, etc. can be also carried.
Ampere-second. have bacteriostatic action, in high concentration work bakteritsidno. Antibacterial activity of Ampere-second. express in phenolic coefficient which represents the attitude of bactericidal concentration of phenol towards bactericidal concentration of this substance. Selectivity of action inherent in chemotherapeutic means, Ampere-second. it is not inherent. Efficiency of Ampere-second. depends on sensitivity to them of a microorganism, concentration of substance, temperature, time of influence and on solvent. Many Ampere-second., contacting proteins, lose activity therefore they should be applied after clarification of the infected surface from exudate. Some Ampere-second. have property to damage living cells of a macroorganism. Therefore at assessment of properties of antiseptic agents definition of their toxicity on «an index of toxicity» which represents the relation of the minimum concentration of drug causing death of a test microorganism within 10 min. to its maximum concentration which is not causing suppression of growth of culture of fabrics of a chicken embryo is of great importance.
Mechanism of action of Ampere-second. is defined their chemical and physical. - chemical properties. Antimicrobic effect of chlorine and chlorine-containing connections is connected with education hypochloric to - you are (HClO), edges works as an oxidizer, emitting oxygen and as the means chlorinating amine and iminogroups of the proteins which are a part of microorganisms. Thus, formation of hydrogen bindings between nitrogen atoms and carbonyl carbons at the expense of which the secondary helical structure of protein is created is excluded. Oxidizers break oxidation-reduction processes at microorganisms, changing the redox potential of the environment. Antimicrobic effect of acids, alkalis and salts is caused by their property to dissociate at penetration through cellular covers in microbic bodies and to denature proteins of protoplasm. Bactericidal effect of salts of heavy metals explain them with interaction with proteins therefore albuminates are formed. Besides, ions of heavy metals connect sulphhydryl groups of substances of a bacterial cell that leads to disturbance of her metabolism. Action of Ampere-second., lowering surface intention, it is connected with change of permeability of bacterial membranes; anionic detergents interfere with action cationic (tsetilpiridiniybromid) therefore they should not be applied at the same time. Compounds of phenol block fermental activity of dehydrogenases; besides, they have properties of detergents. The mechanism of antimicrobic effect of formaldehyde explain it with accession to amino groups of proteins owing to what there is their denaturation. Feature of antimicrobic effect of dyes is the known selectivity that is connected with their property to react with certain acid or basic groups of substances of bacterial cells with formation of difficult soluble poorly ionizing complexes. Antibacterial activity of derivatives of nitrofuran is caused by existence in their molecule of the aromatic nitrogroup capable to be recovered in an amino group. Nitrofurans slow down cellular respiration and, thus, interfere with accumulation of the energy necessary for development and reproduction of microorganisms. Under the influence of antiseptic agents process of cell fission is broken and there occur the morphological changes which are followed by change of cellular structure.
Ampere-second. apply locally at treatment of purulent wounds, furuncles, anthrax and other diseases and as desinfectants (see. Antiseptics ). Besides, Ampere-second. use at conservation of medicines and foodstuff.
Separate Ampere-second. — see articles according to names of drugs (e.g., Boric acid , Tetraethyl-diamino-triphenyl-carbohydride sulfate , Dermatolum , Ichthyolum , Xeroform , Chiniofonum etc.). See also Antimicrobic means .
Bibliography: Belovo 3. M. Antibacterial therapy in clinic of internal diseases, M., 1971; Mashkovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p. 2, page 437, M., 1972; P and d e y with to and I am E. N both To and in - m and G. Ya. Antisepticheskiye's N and desinfectants, the Guide to pharmacology, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev, t. 2, page 287, L., 1961, bibliogr.; Pershing. H. Influence of antibacterial and chemotherapeutic agents on bacterial enzymes, M., 1952, bibliogr.
T. N. Zykova.