From Big Medical Encyclopedia

ANTIGENS HETEROGENEOUS (grech, heteros another + gennao to create, make; synonym: heterophyllous, cross reacting) — the antigens similar on the specificity for different types of organisms.

In 1911 Mr. J. Forssman discovered the general antigen for fabrics of a Guinea pig and erythrocytes of a ram. Further it was shown that similar antigens are not limited to classical antigen of J. Forssman and widely occur among many animal species and plants. Researchers of school of M. L. Krichevsky found heterogeneous antigens of chicken, a turtle and cat; at an infectious mononucleosis heterogeneous antigen of Paul — Bunnellya is revealed, antigens, the general for the person or animals with viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths are found.

At many microorganisms antigenic substances, related with antigens of erythrocytes and other fabrics and human organs and animals are defined (see the tab.).

Existence at microbes, especially at pathogenic, the antigens similar to fabrics and bodies of the owner (the person or an animal), in Krom they parasitize, is of undoubted interest to studying of mechanisms of a pathogeny, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.

In 1944 H. N. Zhukov-Verezhnikov and T. A. Guseva found antigen, the general for erythrocytes of the person and a plague microbe. Results of these researches formed the basis for the hypothesis made by them of strengthening of virulence of the pathogenic microorganisms containing And. In 1965 — 1970 P. N. Kosyakov, 3. I. Rovnova and others found as a part of an influenza virus of type A of a strain of PR-8, a parainfluenza virus Sendai and a virus of a disease of Newcastle the antigenic components inherent in cells of the owner. Researchers consider that these antigens are included into structure of viruses, but are not adsorbed on a surface of elementary little bodies.

In a crust, time the chemical structure of many is known And. Specificity of mucopolysaccharides of blood is connected with monosaccharides: N - acetyl - D - galaktozaminom, a D-galactose, L-fructose. The same monosaccharides are found in a number of gram-negative bacteria that, apparently, causes immunological looking alike isoantigens of blood of the person. In erythrocytes of the person and the pneumococcus like XIV has general polisakharidny substance — 0-β-D-галактопиранозил (1-4)-Ν-ацетил-D-глюкозамин. Antigens, general with tissue of heart, are revealed almost in all textural features of a streptococcus. Cross reacting antigen of the capsule is presented hyaluronic to - that, in a cover there are, apparently, several cross reacting antigens of proteinaceous character.

In the light of these data huge practical value gets a question of receiving the vaccinal drugs containing a minimum And. and maximum of alien. Further attempts to activate the microbic antigen which became already considerably defective by addition to vaccines of proteins, new to an organism, and also use of special growth mediums of vaccinal strains of microorganisms are of interest.

Availability of cross reacting antigens like AB0 at some causative agents of especially dangerous infections and the population of a number of areas of the globe given about group accessory induced a number of researchers to make a hypothesis of influence And., the causative agents of plague and smallpox which are a part, on modern distribution of blood groups. Follows from this hypothesis that persons with a blood group And are more sensitive to a virus of smallpox, and the person with a blood group 0 — to the causative agent of plague.

And. have practical value for typing of microorganisms, for receiving diagnostic monospecific serums. There are bases to assume their participation in a pathogeny of autoimmune diseases.

Bibliography: Zhukov - Verezhnikov N. and Guseva G. Immunology of plague, Shurn. mikr., epid, and immun., No. 3, page 14, 1944, bibliogr.; Jambs P. N. and Rovnovaz. I. Antigenic components of the owner in structure of a virus, Vopr. Viru-sol., No. 1, page 17, 1965, bibliogr.; Petrov R. V. Urgent problems of an immunogenetics, Zhurn. mikr., epid, and immun., No. 10, page 7, 1971, bibliogr.; In of ent L., MedawarP. Century of a. Ruszkiewicz of M. of Serological methods in the study of transplantation antigens, Brit. J. exp. Path., v. 42, p. 464, 1961, bibliogr.; Cahill J. F. a. o. Role of biological mimicry in the pathogenesis of arthritis induced by Mycoplasma arthritidis, Infect, and Immun., v. 3, p. 24, 1971; Gourlay R. N. a. S h i f-r i n e M. Antigenic cross-reactions between the galactan from Mycoplasma mycoi-des and polysaccharides from other sources, J. comp. Path., v. 76, p. 417, 1966, bibliogr.; Hirata A. A. a. Terasaki P. I. Cross-reactions between streptococcal, M. proteins and human transplantation antigens. Science, v. 168, p. 1095, 1970, bibliogr.; Lagercrantz R. o. Immunological studies in ulcerative colitis, J. exp. Med., v. 128, p. 1339, 1968; Springer G. F. Importance of blood-group substances in interactions between man and microbes, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 169, p. 134, 1970, bibliogr.; Wagner M., Schnabel R. u. Köhler W. Kreuzreagierende Antigene bei A-Strepto-kokken und in der Herz und Skelettmuskulatur des Menschen, Wiss. Z. Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Math. — Nat. R., Bd 19, S. 519, 1970.

H. H. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, G. of M. Bochko.