ANTIFUNGAL ANTIBIOTICS — biologically active agents produced by microorganisms and their derivatives which are selectively suppressing viability of activators of fungus diseases (mycoses) in an organism of the patient.
P.'s opening and. and widespread introduction them in the 50th in medical practice increased efficiency of therapy of the majority of mycoses (see). Apply various P. and., different physical, - chemical properties, biol, activity and an action spectrum. All famous P. and., except griseofulvin, treat amphoteric polyenes. On number of conjugated double bonds half-yen antibiotics are divided into four groups: tetrayena, pentayena, geksayena and geptayena.
Item and. possess fungistatic, and at high concentration — fungicidal action. Only a fungistasis griseofulvin (see) which affects filamentous fungi possesses (trikhofitona, many types of Microsporon, Epidermophyton). Item and. are active concerning yeast-like fungi of the sort Candida (nystatin, levorinum, trichomycin, Mycoheptinum), some protozoa, including Trichomonas vaginalis (levorinum, trichomycin). Nystatin (see) suppresses growth of pathogenic and saprophytic fungi, possesses amebotsidny action. Amphotericinum In (see. Amphotericinums ) Blastomyces, Histoplasma is active against Cryptococcus.
Half-yen antibiotics on the molecular mechanism of action concern to group of membranotropny substances (see. Antibiotics ). Polyenes cause disturbance of integrity of a cytoplasmic membrane of a fungal cell therefore there is escaping of cytoplasm to the environment of biologically active molecules and ions.
Item and. apply to treatment of superficial and deep mycoses. At candidiasis of mucous membranes went. - kish. a path and urinogenital bodies, and also skin use nystatin, levorinum (see) and its sodium salt. They are appointed as well with the preventive purpose for the prevention of development of candidiases in patients, it is long treated other antibiotics, and also at the weakened and elderly patients. Contraindications to use of nystatin and levorinum are not established. Side effect of these drugs is observed seldom. At generalized mycoses, and also at histoplasmosis, a cryptococcosis, a coccidioidosis, a kandidosepsisa (the sepsis caused by fungi of the sort Candida) effective fungistatika are Amphotericinum In, amfoglyukamin and its new dosage form — Mycoheptinum. Amphotericinum In, amfoglyukamin, Mycoheptinum are contraindicated at individual intolerance and diseases of kidneys. In case of need appoint antihistaminic drugs (see. Antihistaminic substances ), and at increase of the phenomena of a renal failure treatment is stopped and renewed only at full normalization of function of kidneys. Griseofulvin is applied at fungus diseases of skin, hair and nails (a favus, a trichophytosis, a microsporia, an epidermophitia, an onychomycosis). Griseofulvin is contraindicated during pregnancy and to babies.
See also Antifungal means .
Bibliography: Antibiotics, under the editorship of N. P. Elinov and P. M. Kashkin, page 321, L., 1970; The Medicines allowed for use in the USSR under the editorship of M. A. Klyuev and E. A. Babayan, page 67, 253, M., 1979; M and sh to about in with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p. 2, page 209, M., 1977; Navashin S. M. and Fom and - N and I. P. Reference book on antibiotics, page 258, M., 1974; Haller I. Zum Wir-kungstyp von Iroidazol-Antimykotika, Mykosen, Bd 22, S. 423, 1979; Plempel M. Pharmakokinetik der Imidazol-Antimykotika, ibid., Bd 23, S. 16.
And. M. Tereshiya.