ANTICONVULSANTS (anticonvulsiva; synonym antikonvulsant) — the medicinal substances used for stopping of spasms of any origin. Before this term designated preferential antiepileptic means (see). Items of page use at treatment of the convulsive states accompanying tetanus, a hypoxia, poisoning with convulsive poisons, an eclampsia, inflammatory and traumatic damages of a brain, epilepsy, etc. the diseases which are followed by spasms.
The chemical connections of different structure differing also on the mechanism of action on c have anticonvulsant properties. N of page. Pages conditionally divide in total P. into two groups: not selectively and selectively oppressing convulsive activity. Carry anesthetics to the first group (see), hypnagogues (see) and magnesium sulfate (see. Magnesium , drugs), to the second — antiepileptic means and some tranquilizers (see).
Item of page not selective actions oppress activity of many departments of c. N of page due to disturbance in them synoptic transfer and thereof stop spasms. The most expressed anticonvulsant effect is reached at such P.' use by the village in the doses causing loss of consciousness. Drugs of this group use incidentally in need of urgent stopping of spasms. The choice of drug and a way of its introduction is defined in such cases by the nature of convulsive reaction. So, stopping of tetanic spasms is begun usually with use of etherization, at an eclampsia rektalno enter Chlorali hydras or intramusculary magnesium sulfate. Barbituric (tiopentalnatry) and not barbituric (hydroxybutyrate of sodium, Propanididum) neingalyatsioiny anesthetics enter hexenal intravenously for fight against heavy spasms of a different etiology.
Item of page selective actions do not cause the expressed and widespread oppression of c. N of page. They enough selectively interfere with mechanisms of development of convulsive process. The most typical P. of page of this group are antiepileptic means which use at various forms of epilepsy (big and small attacks, psychomotor equivalents, etc.). Mechanisms of anticonvulsant effect of these substances are various. So, the drugs used for treatment of big epileptic seizures and belonging to the different classes of chemical connections (phenobarbital, a hexamidine, dipheninum, carbamazepine, etc.), prevent excess depolarization of membranes of nervous cells and thanks to it complicate formation of convulsive focus, its generalizations interfere. A part in the mechanism of effect of these substances is played also by strengthening of brake processes by them in c. N of page. For treatment of small epileptic seizures use other antiepileptic substances (Trimethinum, an Ethosuximidum, Diacarbum). These drugs possess other mechanism of action, the nature to-rogo, as well as genesis of attacks, is a little studied. It is possible that the effect of such drugs is caused by primary restriction of function of the synchronizing devices of a brain.
Tranquilizers from group of a pro-pan-diol (Meprotanum) and benzodiazepine (diazepam, Phenazepamum, etc.) also have anticonvulsant effect, a cut it is connected with ability to break activity of internuncial neurons of the central routes participating in regulation of motive functions. These drugs are effective at the spasms caused by nek-ry convulsive poisons and at tetanus, and diazepam, besides, stops spasms at the epileptic status.
Except P. of page, for anticonvulsant therapy also kurarepodobny substances (see) which apply hl can be used. obr. for stopping of spasms at tetanus and poisonings with convulsive poisons. Unlike P. kurarepodobny means render to page anticonvulsant effect by blockade of neuromuscular transmission.
See also Muscle relaxants .
Bibliography: Arushanyan E. B. Cellular mechanisms of effect of antiepileptic substances, Zhurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 69, No. 11, page 1731, 1969; S. A Thunders. Philosophy of modern treatment of epilepsy, in book: Pathogenetic treatment of epilepsy, under the editorship of S. A. Gromov, page 5, L., 1977; Buchthal A. Zur Pharmakotherapie der Epilepsien, Med. Welt, S. 919, 1978; E a d i e M. J. Anticonvulsant therapy, Med. J. Aust., v. 2, p. 663, 1972; Hartshorn E. A. With rntral nervous system drugs, anticonvulsants, Drug Intel, a. clin. Pharm., v. 6, p. 130, 1972.
E. B. Arushanyan.