ANTIBECHICS (synonym antitussiva) — the pharmaceuticals suppressing or weakening a tussive reflex by oppression of the tussive center of a myelencephalon or peripheral receptors.
Depending on the mechanism of action of P. of page it is possible to divide into three groups: central acting agents — codeine (see), ethyl morphine (see), glautsin (see), etc.; peripherally acting agents — libexinum; means of the mixed mechanism of action — abekhol, etc. The subgroup of central acting agents distinguishes drugs narcotic (codeine, ethyl morphine) and non-narcotic type (glautsin).
Antibechic effect of drugs of narcotic type connect with oppression of activity of the tussive center. Along with it the pages listed to P. can exert the oppressing impact on a respiratory center. Ability at prolonged use to cause medicinal dependence is characteristic of all drugs of narcotic type.
Non-narcotic P. of page of the central action selectively oppress a tussive reflex, practically without influencing a respiratory center. They do not cause medicinal dependence.
Antibechic drug of peripheral action is libexinum, which reduces sensitivity of receptors of a mucous membrane of a trachea and bronchial tubes. It not completely suppresses cough and does not influence function of a respiratory center. Has bronchodilatory effect that facilitates breath and otkhozhdeny phlegms. On expressiveness of antibechic action does not concede to codeine. At intake the effect of libexinum develops in 45 — 60 min., duration of action 3 — 4 hours. Appoint the adult 0,1 — 0,2 g, to children depending on age on 0,025 — 0,05 g to reception 3 — 4 times a day. Tablets of drug in order to avoid anesthesia of a mucous membrane of an oral cavity are recommended to be swallowed without chewing. Before bronkhol. a research drug give for an hour before manipulation in a dose 0,9 — 3,8 mg/kg of body weight in combination with atropine.
Antibechic effect abekhola (baltiks) — drug of the mixed mechanism of action — it is caused by decrease in excitability of the tussive center and disturbance of generation of impulses from a mucous membrane of bronchial tubes due to mestnoanesteziruyushchy action. Drug does not influence normal function of the secretory device of bronchial tubes and does not break allocation and expectoration of a phlegm. Effect of drug after intake comes in 20 — 30 min. and continues apprx. 5 — 6 hour. Appoint the adult 20 — 30 drops 3 — 4 times a day, to children on 15 drops 3 times a day.
Indications to P.'s appointment pages are dry, unproductive cough at irritation of a mucous membrane of a tracheobronchial tree (e.g., at acute and hron, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, a pulmonary tuberculosis, tumors and foreign bodys of bronchial tubes); attacks ekst rabronkhialny cough (e.g., at dry pleurisy, nervous cough); cough at patients with a decompensation of cordial activity. Items of page use also by preparation to bronkhol. to researches. At pleurogenic cough in the acute period of spontaneous pheumothorax as P. the village is reasonable to use morphine. Items of page are contraindicated at hyper secretory bronchitis, pulmonary bleedings and in the first two days after an inhalation anesthesia.
Side effect of P. of page of narcotic type is shown by oppression of a respiratory center, nausea, locks, development of accustoming and medicinal dependence that limits duration of their appointment. Items of page of non-narcotic type seldom cause side effects which are shown by hl. obr. dizziness, nausea, dryness or congestion of a nose. At use of a glautsin and abekhol euphoria and sleeplessness are sometimes noted.
Bibliography: Clinical pharmacology, under the editorship of V. V. Zakusov, M., 1976; M and sh-kovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 193, M., 1977.
I. P. Zamotayev.