ANTI-EPIDEMIC ACTIONS — a complex of the sanitary and hygienic, treatment-and-prophylactic and organizational (administrative) measures directed to localization and elimination of the centers of infectious diseases.
Growth of welfare of the population of the Soviet Union, considerable improvement of working conditions, life and rest of workers, a big complex of the sanitary and preventive events held in the country already many decades defined falloff inf. incidences, stable epidemic wellbeing.
Level of modern scientific knowledge in the field of epidemiology, microbiology, hygiene, inf. pathologies, the existing system of sanitary and epidemiologic and treatment-and-prophylactic actions, equipment anti-epidemic means allow to reveal timely inf. the patient to organize effective P. of m and in short terms to liquidate the epidemic center (see) at the majority inf. diseases. It is promoted also by the fact that in number of actions for the precautionary and current sanitary inspection (see) which is carried out constantly and irrespective of inf. incidences, enter such which in an unsuccessful epidemic situation gain anti-epidemic character.
In fight against infectious diseases in the Soviet Union the main place belongs to sanitary and preventive actions (see), realized not only by bodies of health care, but also the enterprises of services industry of the population, the food industry and trade, vt. service, administrative bodies and institutions of municipal services. Items of m are directed only to localization and elimination of the arising epidemic centers.
Content and P.'s volume of m in each case are defined by epidemiology of a nosological form of infectious diseases, the quantitative characteristic of the epidemic centers and specific conditions of the environment. Against the background of consecutive decrease in level inf. incidences in our country a part of the measures entering a complex P. of m is implemented already during the forecasting of an adverse epidemic situation (see. Forecasting epidemiological ).
It is known that epidemic process (see) is caused by existence of a source of an infection (see), the susceptible population and a possibility of sale of the mechanism of transfer of a contagium. P.'s problem of m is effective impact on these elements (factors) epid. process for the purpose of circulation loss of the activator among the population. Measures for neutralization of a source of an infection, for suppression of ways of transmission of infection come into force of it in a complex P. of m (see. Mechanism of transmission of infection ) and on increase in specific immunity of the population (see. Immunization ). However at various infectious diseases separate P.' importance of m is not identical. So, at elimination of the natural smallpox dominating universal immunization of all inhabitants of the settlement (territory) was, in Krom there were cases. At intestinal infections all-sanitary measures for suppression of ways of transmission of infection and neutralization of its sources are effective. At a number of natural and focal diseases major importance is got by measures for improvement of the territory of the natural centers and protection of people against attack of blood-sicking carriers (see. Natural ochagovost ).
Measures concerning a source of an infection depending on the nature of a disease have the features. So, at antroponozny inf. diseases, napr, at a typhoid, dysentery, etc., in the shortest terms reveal all patients and carriers sick isolate (see. Isolation of infectious patients ) and then hospitalize, and carriers of an infection sanify. At quarantine diseases (see) along with patients surely isolate also the persons communicating with them; behind a condition of their health establish medical observation during the term equal to the maximum period of an incubation. At zoonotic infectious diseases of sick domestic animals as the source of an infection or is destroyed (e.g., at a sapa, rage), or reduced in separate farms where they are supported in conditions of the high sanitary and veterinary security (e.g., at a brucellosis). Neutralization of sources of an infection in the natural centers is reached by destruction of rodents (e.g., at plague, a tularemia) or decrease in number of predatory mammals (e.g., foxes and wolves at rage).
The importance of the measures directed to suppression of ways of transmission of infection at various infectious diseases is also significantly various. So, in the epidemic centers intestinal inf. diseases (e.g., a typhoid) highly effective and therefore leaders are sanitary and hygienic and disinfection measures. In general they come down to an exception of possible use by the population of the infected drinking water and foodstuff, respect by the population of norms and rules of personal hygiene, reliable disinfecting of allocations of the patient, and also objects of the situation surrounding it on which causative agents of intestinal infections can survive for a long time. Full performance of these measures can be reached only at strict observance of sanitary and hygienic norms and governed the numerous enterprises, institutions and the organizations responsible for water supply of the population, cleaning of the inhabited places, production, preparation, transportation, processing and implementation of foodstuff in the form of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products. Control of observance dignity. - a gigabyte. norms and rules in activity of the listed enterprises and the organizations is one of the main objectives of the sanitary inspection (see) which is carried out by network of institutions of sanitary and epidemiologic service (see). In the epidemic centers of the majority of infectious diseases with the airborne mechanism of transfer of activators disinfecting of air and objects of a surrounding situation by means of physical and chemical desinfectants is possible (see). However for a variety of reasons (rather bystry dying off of activators in the environment, a possibility of infection of the persons communicating with the patient before his identification and isolation) these actions have generally auxiliary character. The main actions at the same time are immunization (at measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, etc.) or early identification and isolation of patients, napr, at a pulmonary form of plague, smallpox, scarlet fever, etc. P. of m on suppression of ways of transfer of the blood (transmissible) infections which are transmitted by arthropod ectoparasites, napr, malaria, a tick-borne encephalitis, flebotomny fever, etc., consist in carrying out disinsection (see), protection of people against attack of arthropods — carriers of an infection (see. Carriers ). In the epidemic (epizootic) centers of diseases of outside covers are the most important performance a dignity. rules of care of animals, carrying out disinfection (see), respect for personal hygiene.
The items of m directed to increase (creation) in immunity of the population to this or that inf. diseases, consist of the emergency immunoprevention or chemoprophylaxis in collectives with high risk of infection. Immunization (see) can become the main action, especially in the centers of infectious diseases with the airborne mechanism of transmission of infection.
Items of m in the epidemic center are implemented during the whole time of identification inf. patients, up to isolation of the last patient (plus the maximum incubation interval), disinfectings of the environment and carrying out in need of immune or chemoprophylaxis.
Items of m in the epidemic centers are carried out by specialists of institutions a dignity. - epid, services together with doctors of offices of infectious diseases (see) district (city) clinics. According to «The provision on the state sanitary inspection» of the recommendation of specialists, issued in the form of plans of anti-epidemic actions, are obligatory for execution on places. The main indicator at assessment of efficiency of P. of the m which are carried out in the epidemic centers is time spent for elimination of these centers, and absence in the subsequent inf. the diseases connected with this center.
Bibliography: Vogralik G. F. The doctrine about epidemic diseases, Tomsk, 1935; Military epidemiology, under the editorship of I. I. Rogozin, L., 1962; Gromashev-s to and y L. V. General epidemiology, M., 1965; Elkin I. I. Sketches of the theory of an epidemryulogiya, M., 1960; Zabolotny D. K. Fundamentals of epidemiology, M. — L., 1927; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of N. N. Zhukov-Vereshnikov, t. 5, page 207, M., 1965.
P. N. Burgasov, A. A. Sumarokov.