ANTHROPOMETRY (+ to measure Greek anthröpos of people by metreö; synonym somatometriya) — set of methods and methods of measurements of morphological features of a human body. Anthropometrical inspection of the person is subdivided into actually anthropometry studying measuring signs, and the antroposkopiya (a synonym a somatoskopiya) connected with assessment in points of degree of manifestation of descriptive signs — secondary sexual, racial, constitutional and diagnostic, etc.
And. it is used in forensic medicine for examination of age of the person, in obstetrics — at size discrimination of a basin of women and degree of a donoshennost of newborns, in pediatrics and hygiene of education — during the overseeing by growth and development of children and teenagers. Section A., devoted to measurement of bones, received the name of an osteometriya, a skull — kraniometriya (see).
The earliest use And. found at assessment of the validity to military service. In Russia measurements of a body were used for this purpose since the middle of 19 century. One of the first instructions on And. it was developed in 1883 but A. P. Bogdanov's initiative. Further development And. it is connected with R. Martin, A. Hrdlifcka and V. V. Bunak's names.
The anthropometrical equipment
In school, professional and military And. the following anthropometrical sizes are most often used: length of a body standing and sitting, width of shoulders, body weight and a circle of a thorax. Results of measurement are compared with the standards developed for the population of this age, sex and ethno-territorial accessory. Taking into account the phenomenon accelerations (see) a period of validity of standards shall not exceed 5 — 10 years.
Anthropometrical measurements shall be performed by specially trained personnel — the measuring instrument and the assistant — in the first half of day (in the morning) on naked people. The assistant to the measuring instrument monitors observance of an order and enters from dictation results of measurements in the special form, contents to-rogo depends on research objectives. And. includes definition linear (longitudinal and cross), the obkhvatny and angular sizes, and also body weight. At the same time so-called anthropometrical points (fig. 1) which are accurately probed under skin sites of bones, and in some cases and idiosyncrasies of soft tissues are used (a circle of a nipple, a podjyagodichny fold, etc.). The longitudinal sizes undertake in situation investigated standing in their projective value. Find height over a floor of anthropometrical points, then subtraction of one projective size from another receive distance between the considered points. Measurements shall be performed quickly enough that investigated kept invariable position of a body. The last shall be natural, axes of feet are directed forward and slightly aside, hands along a trunk, fingers are unbent in joints, palms are turned to side surfaces of hips by a thumb forward. The head is established in the provision of an orbital and ear horizontal. At the same time the bottom edge of the right eye-socket and the upper edge of a trestle of the right auricle shall be in the horizontal plane.
Measurement of length of a body the wooden height meter (fig. 2) is performed so that inspected touched a vertical level of the device by heels, buttocks and a back. The head — in the provision of an orbital and ear horizontal. Head hair are moved apart, the mobile level touches skin in an apical point. At measurement by the metal height meter of Martin (fig. 3) the measuring and his assistant who is writing down results of measurement shall watch vertical position of the tool.
Measuring becomes to the right of measured, having the height meter in the median plane. The mobile line of the height meter shall be above a darkness in the beginning, then it falls before contact with a cinciput. Length of a body measured by the wooden height meter on average is 2 cm more. Length of a body sitting it is measured also by the height meter (fig. 4). The last is supplied for this purpose with a folding seat at the height of 40 cm from a floor. Inspected sits down on a seat of the height meter so that buttocks and an interscapular interval touched a vertical rack. Legs are shifted and bent in knees, the head — in the provision of an orbital and ear horizontal.
Some authors recommend to make determination of the longitudinal sizes of a body in a prone position. It is more preferable at children up to 1,5 years and patients, i.e. at difficulties or impossibility of long preservation measured vertical position. A prone position only available at measurements on corpses. For measurements at horizontal position of a body it is offered horizontal easel antropometr (fig. 5). Results of measurements of length of a body at vertical and horizontal its provisions are not identical. Length of a body of teenagers in a prone position is more, than in a standing position, on average on 1 cm.
Width of shoulders is measured by big tolstotny compasses as distance between acromial points. In obstetric practice at statement of women on the account on pregnancy and receipt them on childbirth in medical establishment the outside sizes of a basin are subject to obligatory measurement (see. Obstetric research ). The radiographic research does possible determination of internal dimensions of a basin.
The Obkhvatny sizes of a body determine linen (more rare metal) by a tape with centimetric divisions. Linen tapes at long measurements stretch and are subject to replacement with new. For measurement of a circle of a thorax the tape is imposed behind under bottom corners of shovels, in front men — on the lower semi-circle have a pacifier, women — on cartilages have IV pairs of edges over chest glands. Measurements are performed at the maximum breath, an exhalation and in a pause. Subtracting from the first size of the second, receive an excursion of a thorax.
The circle of the head is quite often measured in pediatric practice. The tape is imposed on the greatest perimeter of the last. At measurement of newborns along with a circle of the head and breast the circle of a stomach is defined.
The Obkhvatny sizes of extremities characterize development of muscular system (a grasp of a shoulder at the level of the greatest swelling of a biceps at reduction and relaxation of the last) or hypodermic adipopexis (a grasp of a hip in an upper third).
The indicator which is summing up a skeletogeny and soft tissues of a body — body weight (see). The last is defined during the weighing on scales of lever system (medical). In forwarding conditions scales of floor type (VN-130) can be used though the accuracy of measurement at the same time decreases.
Measurements of the angular sizes of a body are performed by the goniometer, one of the most perfect designs to-rogo is offered by V. A. Gamburtsev (see. Goniometriya ).
Extent of hypodermic adipopexis is estimated in points according to V. V. Bunak or that more precisely, direct measurement of thickness of podkozhnozhirovy folds compasses-kaliperom (fig. 6) or the sliding compasses. Measurements are performed most often on a shoulder, under a bottom corner of a shovel (vertical and horizontal folds) and over a crest of an ileal bone or on a stomach. Two fingers of the left hand measuring takes skin with hypodermic cellulose, and on side surfaces of a fold contact surfaces of the kaliper who is in the right hand of measuring are imposed. Kaliper possesses the device considering degree of a prelum of a fold ranging from 5 to 35 g/mm 2 ; at measurements the pressure force of a kaliper shall remain a constant. The recommended pressure force 10 ± 2 g/mm 2 .
Use of the sliding compasses at measurement of podkozhnozhirovy folds is at a loss randomness of pressure of his legs (the mistake in determination of thickness of a fold on 1 mm involves a mistake in 1 — 2 kg from total quantity of the fat in a body calculated on measurements of folds in several places).
The general content of fat can be determined by the specific weight (density) of a body, i.e. the relation of body weight to its volume. Definition of the last is made during the comparison of weight of the person in air and in the state shipped in water or direct registration of body capacity in specially adapted tank with water — a volyuminometra (G. K. Stupin). There are also methods of measurement of body capacity by helium cultivation or substitution of air. The first is based on introduction of a certain amount of helium in the closed space (supporting the person) and change of concentration of gas as a result of life activity of the person. Assessment of body capacity is made in the second way by decrease in barometric pressure in the experimental camera. Accuracy of both methods is high: correlation coefficients of the values calculated for body capacity by that and another by methods reach 0,99 [Hicks (V. M of Hix) and sotr., 1964].
Along with empirical methods there are also theoretical ways of assessment of specific weight of a body (d) according to fatty (D), muscular (M) and a body, bone (About) components: d = 1,0755 — 0,00191×D + 0,00055×М — 0,00189×О (P. N. Bashkirov, 1962).
However the return operation is more often performed: values of specific weight of a body are taken as a principle definition of a fatty component and «the fat-free (lean) weight» of a body. In medical practice fractionation of body weight is useful at observations over people in a condition of obesity or exhaustion.
As a concept, important for medicine, serves «normal», or «optimum», the body weight which is most favoring to life activity and preservation of health of an organism. Ways of determination of normal body weight are various: beginning from the eurysynusic, but deprived scientific justification of an index of Brock (weight in kg = to length of a body cm — 100) and finishing calculations of body weight for formulas, e.g. [Krenye (E. Crenier), 1966]:
the body weight of the man = 0,84561×Χ1 + 0,46943×Х2 + 1,14403×Χ3 + 0,39348×Х4 — 109,49746;
the body weight of the woman = 0,94513×Χ1 + 0,29643×Х2 + 2,51735×Х3 + 0,4029×Х4 — 80,823553,
where X1 — perimeter of «the lean weight» of a hip, X2 — length of a body, X3 — perimeter of «the lean weight» of a shoulder, X4 — humeral diameter (all in cm).
In medical practice determination of normal body weight is made according to the nomograms developed for separate age and sex groups taking into account length of a body and a circle of a thorax. At the same time the principle of «rejuvenation» of body weight offered by D. A. Zhdanov and consisting in use of the nomograms developed for people of younger age can be applied to adults.
Surface area of a body is defined empirically or theoretically by data A. V the first case is applied the stereofotogrammometrichesky equipment and the contour maps of a body surface used during the calculations are formed (use of the COMPUTER can simplify the last and increase their accuracy). At a different way of assessment the film from synthetic material is applied on a body surface. For this purpose Feyri and Cowen (R. Ν. Fairey, R. J. Cowan, 1967) recommend silastic 383. Both considered above a method can be applied only in laboratory researches. At inspection of the population in forwarding conditions the surface area of a body is determined by formulas, the foundation the Crimea was laid for E. F. Du Bois:
1) A = 1 + (W+ΔH)/100 [Isaksson (V. Isaksson), 1958], where And — a body surface in m 2 , W — body weight in kg, ΔΗ — a deviation in cm of length of a body from 160 cm
2) A = W 0,425 × H 0,725 × 74,66 [Benerdzhi and Seong (S. Benerjee, R. Sen), 1957], where And — a body surface in cm 2 , W — body weight in kg, N — length of a body in see.
Calculations become simpler use of nomograms (fig. 7) where as basic data of surface area serve length and body weight [Benerdzhi and Seong, 1957; Sendra and Kollison (J. Sendroy, H. Collison), 1960; L. K. Shchekochikhina, 1964].
Great opportunities for And. opens use of a photographic method, first of all stereofotogrammometriya that allows to take measurements of some sizes of a body directly in photos.
The Antroposkopichesky equipment
Signs of descriptive character usually estimate in the points which are schematically characterizing degree of manifestation of a sign. It belongs to a condition of secondary sexual characteristics, features of a bearing, a shape of a breast and stomach, a shape of legs, development of muscular and fatty tissue, senile and pathological changes of an organism, etc. There is a tendency of the maximum use of the measuring equipment where descriptive approach prevailed before. So, the mammometr-bell from the soft synthetic film connected to devices was applied to measurement of volume of chest gland: extorting air and measuring. At pumping out of air the film fits gland tightly, and the metering device fixes the volume of the last. The data received as a result of an anthropometrical and antroposkopichesky research are exposed to processing by methods of variation statistics (see).
Value A. far is beyond, outlined by hygienists, pediatricians and obstetricians. Clinical And. includes not only ability to perform measurements of a body, but also art to comprehend their results from positions of clinical medicine. At the same time data And. become necessary for the doctor at diagnosis, the choice of a method of treatment and daily control of a condition of the patient.
See also Anthropology .
The anthropometry as a method of forensic medical examination
Anthropometry as a method of forensic medical examination is applied at survey of living persons, a research of corpses and corresponding material evidences. And. establishments the court is used if necessary (on measuring and descriptive indicators, in total with data of other methods). - the medical expert of physical development of the subject: growth, age, sex, a condition of puberty, race, and also at survey of children, teenagers, young men, girls, persons of a military and retirement age that is most often carried out in connection with loss of personal papers, marriage, qualification of responsibility of minor offenders (Art. 10 of UK RSFSR, 392 Codes of Criminal Procedure of RSFSR) and identification of the personality.
Use of results of anthropological inspection, in combination with data of other expert researches, during the openings of corpses of fruits and newborn babies forms the basis for the solution of questions of a maturity, a donoshennost or prematurity of a fruit.
The existing «Rules of a medicolegal research of corpses» provided obligation of measurement of growth (length of a corpse), and during the openings of corpses of unknown persons, besides, of measurement of longitudinal diameter of the head, its largest cross diameter, the greatest circles of the head, a neck, a breast, a stomach and length by a foot (see. Opening , medicolegal).
The method A is of particular importance. at examination of parts of the dismembered corpses, skeletons, separate bones and their fragments. At examination of these material evidences by means of measuring and descriptive receptions the general signs characterizing sexual and age accessory, human height to which skeleton objects of a research etc. belonged are established; besides, the attention to existence of congenital anomalies, a patologicha of sky changes, signs of the postponed injuries etc. is paid. All this in total serves as materials for identification of the personality. In the solution of a question of identification of the personality if for examination the skull with the remained facial skeleton is presented, essential value can have comparison of anatomic indicators by method of photocombination (see. Identification of the personality ).
Bibliography: Breytman M. Ya. Tables for clinical anthropometry, L., 1926; Bunak V. V. Anthropometry, M., 1941; Grimm G. Fundamentals of constitutional biology and anthropometry, the lane with it., M., 1967, bibliogr.; V. P readers. Variations of subcutaneous fat, Vopr. ant-ropol., No. 30, page 38, 1968, bibliogr.; Shchekochikhina L. K. Materials for studying of the areas of surfaces of separate parts of a body of the person, in the same place, No. 18, page 80, 1964, bibliogr.; Booth R. A. D., Goddard B. And. and. R sito n A. Measurement of fat thickness in man, Brit. J. Nutr., v. 20, p. 719, 1966; Fairey R. N. a. Cowan R. J. Anew method for measuring skin surface areas, Canad. J. Surg., v. 10, p. 371, 1967, bibliogr.; Hix V M., Pearson A. M. a. Reineke E. P. Specific gravity of human subjects by air displacement and helium dilution, J. appl. Physiol., v. 19, p. 955, 1964; Pierson W. R. The estimation of body surface area by mono-photogrammetry, Amer. J. phys. Anthro-pol., v. 20, p. 399, 1962, bibliogr.
And. as method of forensic medical examination — T. K's belts. A medicolegal grant on age determination in the prepubertal and pubertal periods of human life (13 — 20 years), Tashkent, 1971; Neklyudov Yu. A. About possibilities of definition of a sex of trailer phalanxes of a brush, Court. - medical examination, No. 3, page 30, 1967; Pashkova V. I. Sketches of medicolegal osteology, M., 1963; Silin G. N. idr. Use of complex anthropometrical and radiological researches at age determination in medicolegal practice, Saturday. nauch. works of doctors of Kabardino-Balkaria, century 2, page 293, Nalchik, 1968, bibliogr.; Fazekas I. G. u. Kösa F. Bestimmung der Körperlänge und des Lebensalters menschlicher Fetten auf Grund der ersten Hand-und ersten Fusswurzelknoc-henmasse, sowie der Grösse des Atlas und des Epistropheus-Wirbelbogens, Dtsch. Z. ges. gerichtl. Med., Bd 61, S. 29, 1967, Bibliogr.; Krogman W. M. The human skeleton in forensic medicine, Springfield, 1962.
B. A. Nikityuk; V. I. Pashkova (court.).